Self reference eect self relevant information is more

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Unformatted text preview: Self ✤ Sociometer theory – self- esteem serves as an internal monitor of social rejection & acceptance ✤ People are social beings & group belonging is a fundamental need The Self ✤ Terror management theory - Self- esteem protects people from anxiety caused by existential terror by giving meaning to people’s lives ✤ Existential terror motivates people to achieve symbolic immortality or uphold cultural values ✤ Mortality salience leads us to act in ways that enhance self- esteem The Self ✤ Self- esteem advantages: ✤ People with high self- esteem ✤ tend to live happier & healthier lives, ✤ cope better with stress, & ✤ more likely to persist at difficult tasks. ✤ The benefits of self- esteem are less striking than previously believed ✤ people with self- esteem are not more likely to be intelligent or well- liked The Self ✤ Self- esteem disadvantages: ✤ People with high self- esteem sometimes ✤ behave aggressively or defensively toward people when they feel they’re not treated with respect ✤ behave in ways that make others dislike them (e.g., boastful) The Self ✤ Self- esteem disadvantages: ✤ Narcissism ✤ People who view themselves in grandiose terms, feel entitled to special treatment, & are manipulative ✤ Some research shows an increase in narcissism among college students (other research does not) The Self ✤ Life is not perfect ✤ How do people maintain a positive sense of self? ✤ Better than average effect ✤ Self- evaluative maintenance ✤ Social comparison ✤ Self- serving bias Better than Average Effect ✤ People perceive themselves as better than average on a host of dimensions ✤ We think we are smarter, more popular, happier, better drivers, & less biased than everyone else ✤ Except, we’re not Self- Evaluative Maintenance ✤ We feel threatened when someone close does better than us on a personally- relevant task ✤ Either we distance ourselves or we select a different domain that is personally- relevant to maintain self- esteem ✤ When the domain is not personally- relevant, and ✤ the person excels, we bask in the reflected glory ✤ the person fails, we cut off the reflected failure Social Comparison ✤ People compare their own actions, abilities, & beliefs to those of others ✤ Upward social comparison – Comparing ourselves to someone who better than us on a particular trait or ability ✤ Makes us feel bad about ourselves ✤ Downward social comparison – Comparing ourselves to someone who worse than us on a particular trait or ability. ✤ Makes us feel good about ourselves Social Comparison ✤ We also make comparisons b/n who we are today & who we once were ✤ our past selves are rated more nega:vely than our current selves ✤ form of downward comparison Self- Serving Bias ✤ People explain their own behavior in a self- serving manner ✤ We take credit for our successes (personal attribution) & downplay responsibility for our failures (situational attribution)...
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