Lecture14_Ch13_Personality_x3

Personality traits implicit personality theories we

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Unformatted text preview: assume certain personality characteristics go together & make predictions about people based on that assumption ✤ Factor analysis ✤ a statistical tool for identifying patterns in a large number of variables that go together Allport & Odbert ✤ A psycho- lexical study ✤ The lexical hypothesis – Important aspects of human life will be labeled, & if it is truly important, it will be labeled in multiple languages ✤ From 400,000 words, Gordon Allport & Henry Odbert identified 18,000 words used to describe personality or behavior Allport & Odbert Allport & Odbert ✤ Strength: ✤ Useful in clarifying & advancing the trait approach to studying personality ✤ Weakness: ✤ No systematic way to test how people differ or a model to organize the findings were provided 16 Personality Factors • Raymond Cattell • took 4,500 adjectives from Allport & Odbert’s list (Column 1 - Personality traits) • utilized existing technology to factor analyze these adjectives into 200 traits • had Ps rate people they knew on these traits • conducted a secondary factor analysis which revealed 16 source traits 16 Personality Factors ✤ Examples: ✤ Abstractedness – imaginative v. practical ✤ Perfectionism – controlled v. undisciplined ✤ Privateness – discrete v. open ✤ Rule consciousness – conforming v. non- conforming ✤ Sensitivity – tender- hearted v. tough- minded 16 Personality Factors ✤ Strength: ✤ Systematic, statistical procedures used to construct a hierarchical model of personality ✤ Weaknesses: ✤ A model of 16 personality factors is not parsimonious ✤ 5 factors underlie these 16 personality factors ✤ “Neologisms” used to name personality factors to avoid confusion ✤ these neologisms caused confusion & no longer a part of personality psychology’s lexicon Hierarchical Model ✤ Hans Eysenck found it useful to further reduce the number of basic traits from Cattell’s 16 personality traits ✤ Proposed a hierarchical model of superordinate traits that guided behavior Hierarchical Model ✤ specific responses: observed behavior Hierarchical Model ✤ Proposed 3 superordinate traits: ✤ Introversion/Extraversion – how reserved/shy or sociable/bold a person is ✤ Biological basis? ✤ Emotional Stability – how much a person’s mood & emotions change ✤ Low = Neuroticism (frequent &...
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