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Lecture14_Ch13_Personality_x3

Rational thought problem solving superego the moral

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Unformatted text preview: gages in rational thought & problem solving ✤ Superego ✤ the moral part of the mind Psychodynamic Approach ✤ Conflicts b/n the id & the superego lead to anxiety ✤ The ego copes with this anxiety through the use of defense mechanisms ✤ Defense mechanisms – Unconscious mental strategies the ego uses to protect the self from anxiety Psychodynamic Approach ✤ Human development occurs in a series of 5 distinct psychosexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) ✤ Each stage is characterized by a source of gratification (i.e., erogenous zones) ✤ Progression through these stages have a major impact on adult personality ✤ if a stage is not successfully resolved, psychic energy is left in that stage, & an individual becomes fixated (e.g., orally fixated) ✤ Psychologists have abandoned psychodynamic theories Psychodynamic Approach ✤ Strengths: ✤ Identified phenomena of incredible importance ✤ unconscious motivational & emotional processes ✤ defensive strategies for coping with threat ✤ Comprehensive theory of human development & personality ✤ Weaknesses: ✤ Many aspects of psychodynamic theory are not falsifiable & are generally misogynistic Humanistic Approach ✤ Humanistic approach – emphasizes a person’s experiences, belief systems, & unique traits in the development of their personality ✤ We seek to fulfill our full potential through self- actualization ✤ Carl Rogers advocated a person- centered approach ✤ emphasis of a person’s own understanding of their life Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987) Humanistic Approach ✤ Parental love & support is conditional on the good behavior & obedience of the child ✤ Children will alter their desires to match those of their parents ✤ Children should be raised with love & support regardless of their behavior ✤ Unconditional Positive Regard – would then lead to sense of self- esteem Trait Approaches ✤ Personality type – distinct categories of people based on some characteristic of their personality ✤ Allport & Odbert’s (1936) psycho- lexical study ✤ Cattell’s (1965) 16 basic dimensions of personality ✤ Eysenck’s hierarchical model of personality ✤ The Five Factor Theory (“the Big Five”) (McCrae & Costa, 1990) Traits Approaches ✤ Multi- trait Theory – establishes a taxonomy in order to understand how individuals differ in personality traits ✤ Implicit personality theories ✤ we...
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