Piers or poles 2 footings monday march 18 13

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Unformatted text preview: ADS SHALLOW DEEP TRANSFERRED TO THE EARTH (NEAR SUPERSTRUCTURE) (FAR FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE) 1. SLAB-ON-GRADE (THICKENED) 1. PIERS OR POLES 2. FOOTINGS Monday, March 18, 13 TRANSFERRED TO THE EARTH 2. PILES OR CAISSONS SHALLOW: SLAB ON GRADE • FOR SMALLER BUILDINGS; IT CAN HAVE FLOOR + FOUNDATIONS (BASEMENTS DEPENDING ON PRESSURE, WATER + INSULATION) • MAT FOUNDATIONS: EQUALIZE PRESSURE ON THE SOIL THROUGHOUT THE SITE SO ITS GOOD FOR UNPREDICTABLE CONDITIONS • RAFT FOUNDATIONS: WHEN A BUILDING IS MADE TO “FLOAD” ON LIQUID SOIL GROUNDWORK GROUND MUST BE PREPPED + TRANSFORMED BEFORE POURING Monday, March 18, 13 FOUNDATION MUST HAVE REINFORCEMENT (SHRINKAGE + CRACKING) AND CONTROL JOINTS SHALLOW: FOOTINGS • USED WITH WALLS + COLUMNS WHERE SOIL CAPACITY CAN SUPPORT LOW TO MODERATE LOADS • RELATIVELY SIMPLE + INEXPENSIVE DUE TO EXCAVATION • SOMETIMES SOIL + SITE CONDITIONS MAKE SHORING NECESSARY (ENSURES ADJACENT SITES AREN’T UNDERMINED) T GROUNDWORK MUST BE LOCATED ON UNDISTURBED SOIL BELOW FROSTLINE, WHICH VARIES T 2T AREA = BUILDING LOAD SOIL CAPACITY Monday, March 18, 13 SPREAD FOOTING FOUNDATION • USUALLY REINFORCED CONCRETE • MUST AVOID “PUNCHING SHEAR” •MUST ADAPT TO TOPOGRAPHY DEEP: END BEARING + FRICTION BEARING • USED WHERE SOILS ARE UNSTABLE OR WHERE LOADS ARE EXTREMELY LARGE • INVOLVES MORE TIME + EXPENSE DUE TO DEPTH AND EXTENT OF EXCAVATION END BEARING: EXTEND TO STABLE SOIL OR BEDROCK PILES CAISSONS LONG COLUMNS OF WOOD, CREATED BY DRILLING STEEL OR CONCRETE DRIVEN LARGE HOLES OR DRIVING OR HAMMERED INTO THE STEEL CASES WHICH ARE EARTH THEN FILLED WITH CONCRETE Monday, March 18, 13 FRICTION BEARING: DEVELOP SURFACE FRICTION ALONG SIDES DEEP: PILE FOUNDATIONS PILE FOUNDATIONS SHEET PILES RETAINING WALLS • SUPPORT LOADS BY CARRYING THEM • USUALLY LOAD BEARING AND DEEP INTO THE GROUND SUPPORTED BY SPREAD FOOTINGS • PILE CAPS: SPREAD FOOTINGS UNDER •BACKFILLED WITH SAND OR GRAVEN TO UNDESIRABLE SOIL FROM FOUNDATION COLUMNS OR WALLS THAT SIT ON A ALLOW MOISTURE TO DRAIN AWAY WALL GROUP OF PILES • BEARING PILES: LONG COLUMNS THAT CARRY LOADS TO ROCK Monday, March 18, 13 • PROVIDE UNDERGROUND WALLS • BENT STEEL PLATE TO RETAIN • MUST BE SHORED FOUNDATION VOCABULARY • SUPERSTRUCTURES: PORTIONS OF A BUILDING’S STRUCTURE THAT ARE ABOVE GROUND • SUBSTRUCTURE: COLLECTION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS BELOW GROUND LEVEL (CRUCIAL TO LONGEVITY) • SETTLEMENT: THE BUILDING MOVES OVER TIME •HEAVING: UPLIFT IN THE GROUND CAUSED BY FREEZING OR EXPANSION • CUTTING + FILLING: SCULPTING THE SITE FOR THE STRUCTURE; WE MAY USE LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS FROM EXCAVATED SOIL AS A PART OF THE ARCHITECTURE • DENSIFICATION + COMPACTION: ROLL SOIL TO COMPACT IT SO IT PERFORMS MORE MONOLITHICALLY; LIQUIFIES THE SOIL, PERMITTING RAPID CONSOLIDATION OR DROPPING MULTI-TON WEIGHTS FROM HIGH HEIGHTS • GROUTING: INJECTING LIQUID CEMENT INTO UNGROUND CAVITIES; SOLIDIFIES POROUS ROCKS FOR DRAINAGE OR STRUCTURAL REASONS (STABILIZES LOOSE SAND + GRAVEL) • DRAINAGE: REMOVING WATER FROM EXISTING SO SOILS CAN DRY BOND, THUS ADDING FRICTION Mond...
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This document was uploaded on 03/15/2014 for the course ARCH 242 at California State Polytechnic University.

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