Reactions such as uplift overturn and suction dynamic

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Unformatted text preview: BY: STATIC OR DYNAMIC • MUST BE RESOLVED AND TRANSFERRED TO THE EARTH VIA THE FOUNDATION STATIC DYNAMIC LIVE LOADS: SNOW, RAIN, WIND LOADS: COMPLEX PEOPLE, ETC. REACTIONS SUCH AS UPLIFT, OVERTURN AND SUCTION DYNAMIC LOADS: WIND + SEISMIC LOADS SEISMIC LOADS: COMPLEX REACTIONS SUCH AS BASE SHEAR AND OVERTURNING Monday, March 18, 13 STABILITY + EQUILIBRIUM DYNAMIC LOADS CREATE TORSIONAL EFFECTS IN A STRUCTURE WHICH MUST BE STABILIZED THROUGH: LATERAL STABILITY EQUILIBRIUM STRUCTURE 1. RIGID FRAME MUST BE RESOLVED BY THE 1.FOUNDATION: INTERFACE 2. BRACED FRAME EARTH BETWEEN BUILDING AND EARTH 2.FRAME: FASTER TO BUILD 3. SHEAR WALLS V 1. EXTENT OF LOADS (WITH CURTAIN WALL) FLOOR + ROOF PLATES 2. CAPABILITY OF SOIL 3.BEARING WALLS: LATERAL (HORIZONTAL) ALSO HELP 3. DESIGNING FOUNDATION TO BRACING + FIRE PROTECTION PUT INTO EQUILIBRIUM Monday, March 18, 13 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LOADS MUST TRANSFER AROUND INTERIOR SPACES TO CREATE USABLE VOIDS (THROUGH BEARING WALLS + FRAMES), THUS ESTABLISHING A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE + SPACE BEARING ELEMENTS SPANNING ELEMENTS PATTERNING • WALLS: STACKED MASONRY, • ONE WAY: BEAMS (CROSS 1. PATTERN IMPLES THE COMPOSITE, STRESSED SKIN SECTIONS, LINEAR BUILDING GEOMETRY • COLUMNS: CROSS SECTION, COMPOSITION) + PLATES 2. ALWAYS AFFECTS THE LINEAR COMPOSITION (TENSILE) PATTERN OF SPACE • FOUNDATIONS: RETAINING • TWO WAY: SLABS 3. MATERIALS MAY DEPEND ON WALLS ECONOMICS TYPES OF PATTERNING: 2D COMPRESSIVE SHAPES, RECTILINEAR PLANS, CURVILINEAR PLANS, 3D TENSILE SURFACES Monday, March 18, 13 FOUNDATIONS Monday, March 18, 13 FOUNDATION FACTORS FOUNDATION TYPE IS TAILORED TO SOIL TYPE WHICH CAN BE DETERMINED THROUGH BORING ANALYSIS. CAN BE MOST BASICALLY SPLIT INTO COARSE GRAIN AND FINE GRAIN SOIL BEARING CAPACITY TYPE FINE GRAIN COARSE GRAIN Monday, March 18, 13 SIZE GRAVEL, SAND SILT, CLAY STRENGTH + - SHALLOW VS. DEEP PERMEABILITY + - 1. BUILDING LOADS 2. SOIL AND GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS 3. SITE TOPOGRAPHY 4. CONTEXT: ADJACENT BUILDINGS 5. BUILDING CODES AND ZONING 6. CONSTRUCTION METHOD/COST FOUNDATION SOIL • RESIST LOADS BY A COMBINATION OF COMPRESSION + SHEAR • DEVELOP FRICTION AS THEY MOVE PAST ONE ANOTHER UNDER LOADING, DEPEND ON SOIL’S SHAPES + ROUGHNESS TYPES OF SOIL BORING, TESTING + IMPROVEMENT 1. BEDROCK: MONOLITHIC + SOILD 1. BORING: A CORE SAMPLE IS TAKEN FROM VARIOUS LOCATIONS ON SITE TO 2. SANDS/GRAVELS: COARSE, TEST GOOD OR BAD SOIL GRANULAR, NON-PLASTIC 2. TESTS: DENSITY, MOISTURE CONTENT, GRANULARITY BY ENGINEERS 3. CLAYS: FINE, GRANULAR + PLASTIC 3. IMPROVEMENT: 4. SILTS: BEHAVE UNPREDICTABLY 5. ORGANICS: DECAYING VEGETATION; VIRTUALLY NO RESISTANCE • CUTTING + FILLING: SCULPTING THE SITE FOR THE STRUCTURE • DENSIFICATION + COMPACTION: ROLL SOIL TO COMPACT IT SO IT PERFORMS MORE MONOLITHICALLY • GROUTING: INJECTING LIQUID CEMENT INTO UNGROUND CAVITIES • DRAINAGE: REMOVING WATER FROM EXISTING Monday, March 18, 13 FOUNDATION TYPES MUST FIND A BALANCE BETWEEN SOIL BEARING CAPACITY + BUILDING LO...
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