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Reading Notes on Denuclearization and Human Rights in North Korea

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Unformatted text preview: iculties obtaining sufficient additional aid without its nuclear potential to act as an incentive to press the international donors. Marnyin, Mark and Mary Beth Nikitin. “Foreign Assistance to North Korea,” Congressional Research Service. 11 June 2013. < http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R40095.pdf> • Between 1995 and 2008, the US provided NK with over $1.3 billion in assistance. Since early 2009, US has provided virtually no aid to Nk, though there have been discussions about resuming large- scale food aid. Obama Administration ahs indicated that they would be willing to consider other types of aid if NK takes steps indicating that it will dismantle its nuclear program. • During the February 2012 deal US announced it would provide NK with large- scale food aid in return for concessions by Pyongyang o its nuclear and missile programs and the deal unraveled in April 2012 after NK launched long- range rocket in defiance of UN sanctions. • In June 2012, Senate voted to prohibit food aid to North Korea • FOOD AID o Chronic, massive food shortages since mid- 90s. o While NK’s continued food shortages are not severe enough to create crisis situation, they are causing chronic malnutrition and stunting in vulnerable populations in certain regions o Providing food to NK poses a number of dilemmas: NK resisted reforms for equitable distribution of food and help pay for food imports Government restricts ability of donors to operate in the country Some of the food assistance is routinely diverted for resale in private markets of other uses Likely that food aid still helped feed millions SK president indicated that they would be willing to offer Nk food aid as part of her plan to foster a new era of inter- Korean relations • ENERGY ASSISTANCE o Between 1995 and 2009, the US provided around $600 million in energy assistance to North Korea, in exchange for NK freezing its plutonium- based • nuclear facilities. But no additional aid since 2009 when NK withdrew from 6- party talks. Brief History of US Aid o Strategy of the US in the four decades after the Korean War: deter an attack on South Korea. Included freeze on virtually all forms of economic contact in order to weaken NK government. o 1990s, two developments led to the US rethinking the relationship: NK’s progress in its nuke weapons and missile programs Onset of massive, chronic...
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