ReviewLecture3b_2014

ReviewLecture3b_2014 - ECH 256 Chemical Kinetics and...

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Brian G. Higgins Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of California, Davis Overview’of’Undergraduate Chemical’Reac7on’Engineering’and’Kine7cs ECH 256: Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Lecture 3b: Atmospheric Chemistry: Chemical Kinetics and the Ozone Hole Email:’ [email protected]
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Earth’s±Atmosphere± Earth’s±atmosphere±is±a±layer±of±gases±surrounding±the± planet,±held±in±place±by±gravity.± The±atmosphere± absorbs±ultra±violet±solar±radia7on± protec=ng±many±living±species.± UV±absorp7on ±increases±the±temperature±of±the± atmosphere,±thereby±warming±the±earth±surface± (from:±[email protected]:// www.theozonehole.com/)±
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’Atmospheric’Layers’ The’atmosphere’is’broken’up’into’5’main’layers:’ Exosphere’ Thermosphere’ Mesosphere’ Stratosphere’Important’for’UV’absorp=on’ Troposphere’Important’for’weather’systems’ In’this’lecture’we’will’talk’about’stratosphere’ozone’deple7on,’ caused’principally’by’air’pollu7on.’ In’par7cular’we’will’examine’the’role’of’homogeneous/ heterogeneous’kine7cs’in’the’stratosphere’
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Atmospheric’Layers’ Region’for’stratospheric’clouds’ In’stratosphere’temperature’increases’with’ height.’Starts’about’10-13’km’end’about’50’km’ above’the’earth’surface.’Stratosphere’lowest’ point’at’poles,’about’8’km.’ (from:’[email protected]:// www.theozonehole.com/)’ Standard’Atmospheric’Model’
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Concept’of’a’Polar’Vortex’ A’polar’vortex’is’a’persistent,’large-scale’cyclone’located’ near’one’or’both’of’a’planet's’geographical’poles.’ On’Earth,’the’polar’vor=ces’are’located’in’the’middle’and’ upper’troposphere’and’the’stratosphere.’They’surround’ the’polar’highs’(area’of’high’atmospheric’pressure).’ The’cold’temperatures’in’the’polar’regions’cause’air’to’ descend’to’create’the’high’pressure’and’a’sharp’cold’ front,’known’as’the’polar’front.’ (from’Wikipedia:’[email protected]://[email protected]:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polar_vortex)’
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Diagrams’of’the’Antarc7c’Vortex’ Polar’front’
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Antarc7c’Zone’Hole’ The’Antarc=c’land’mass’is’completely’surrounded’by’ ocean’ The’Antarc=c’has’a’large’stable’polar’vortex’that’ isolates’the’air’inside’it.’ Thus’stratospheric’temperatures’are’the’coldest’on’ the’planet,’about’170K’or’less’ Similar’condi=ons’do’not’exist’over’the’north’pole,’ where’the’vortex’is’less’stable’and’there’is’more’ mixing’with’warm’air’outside’the’Arc=c’Circle.’
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Simula7on’of’the’Arc7c’Vortex’ Note’unlike’the’Antarc=c’vortex’,’the’Arc=c’vortex’is’unstable’
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ReviewLecture3b_2014 - ECH 256 Chemical Kinetics and...

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