Do model assumptions hold how to choose x variables

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Unformatted text preview: and-effect pattern. A strong regression relation neither implies “X causes Y” nor implies “Y causes X”. • Additional information (often through controlled experiments) is needed to draw cause-and-effect conclusions. • Does it make sense to conclude “good midterm score” causes “good final score”? Note that, a strong regression relation also holds when taking the final score as X variable and the midterm score as Y variable. • A data on size of vocabulary (X ) and writing speed (Y ) for a group of children aged 5-10 shows a positive relationship. This relation does not imply that an increase in vocabulary causes a faster writing speed. Other variables (confounders), such as age and education level, may affect both X and Y ....
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