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Unformatted text preview: out –  Only buckets, no hose –  100 seconds to walk with a bucket from water to Pire, (and 100 to walk to walk back) –  But if you form a bucket brigade •  (needs people and buckets) –  You can deliver a bucket every 10 seconds •  So, latency is 100 or 200 seconds, but bandwidth is 0.1 buckets per second.. Much better –  Whats more: you can increase bandwidth: •  Just make more lines of bucket brigade 8/27/13 cs420: intro 39 Bandwidth can be increased •  •  •  •  “Only” need resources But technology is going to help More pins can be added to chips 3D stacking of memory can increase bandwidth further 8/27/13 cs420: intro 40 Exploi3ng bandwidth •  Need methods that translate latency problems to bandwidth problems •  The difference with bucket brigade analogy: –  Data dependencies –  If what mixture to ask in the next bucket depends on what happened using the last one –  Solution: concurrency 8/27/13 cs420: intro 41 Architectural methods •  For translating latency problems to bandwidth problems •  Ask for nearby data: Cache hierarchies •  Ask for data in bulk (prefetch) and operate on it in bulk : cell processor •  OR –  Every cycle: work on one problem, send its memory request out, and switch to another problem –  GPGPU (and before that, MTA, ..) 8/27/13 cs420: intro 42 Impact on segments •  •  •  •  Mobile Laptop/desktop Small clusters Supercomputers 8/27/13 cs420: intro 43 Mobile compu3ng •  Clients will get more powerful –  Within same form factors.. –  Of course, well connected •  Your children will tell their children wistfully about text messaging.. –  Because speech- to- text (and may be brain- to- screen) may become the norm •  Headsets will whisper the name of the person walking towards you.. •  Robots? 8/27/13 cs420: intro 44 Laptops/Desktops •  This is the big question mark •  Depends on the parallel killer app •  Of course, speech recognition, video processing will be there, as in mobile 8/27/13 cs420: intro 45 Small Clusters •  Probably some of the biggest impact •  Broadening of the market •  Every company/department can afford a very powerful (100 TF? PF?) cluster •  All kinds of activities can be computerized –  Intel’s example: •  fashion designers examining how a cloth will drape over a body, and how it will move •  Via simulation •  Operations Research •  Business Strategies via AI support 8/27/13 cs420: intro 46 Supercomputers •  Exascale w...
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