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Unformatted text preview: ill be reached by 2020 –  May be 50 MW, and 10^18 ops/s •  I expect –  Will create breakthroughs in Science and Engineering of great societal impact –  Biomedicine, materials, –  Astronomy, Physics: theories –  Engineering design of better artifacts –  Control Nuclear fusion (Pission) may solve energy problems –  Climate?? •  If society deems it benePicial, technology can be developed for beyond- exascale (1000 EPlops?) 8/27/13 cs420: intro 47 Next Era: End of Moore’s Law •  10- 15 years from now •  No more increase in performance from a general purpose chip! •  What can we predict about this era? –  First, innovation would shift to functional specialization •  would have started happening already –  Next, innovation will shift to application areas, and molecular sciences: biomedical (nanobots?), materials, –  Another 5- 10 years, you can develop CSE applications knowing that machine won’t change under your feet •  Maybe 8/27/13 cs420: intro 48 Cau3on: predic3ng future •  Remember: –  1900 or so: “End of Science” predicted –  1990 or so: “End of History” predicted 8/27/13 cs420: intro 49 Back to processor design •  There are three basic kinds of logic gates Operation: AND of two inputs OR of two inputs Logic gate: Introduction to CS231 50 NOT (complement) on one input What can we do with Gates? •  What do you want to do? •  Let us say we want to add numbers automatically •  What are numbers? How are they represented –  Roman XVII –  Decimal: 17 •  How to add them, depends on how they are represented –  One representation may be better than other for adding •  Try adding two long roman numbers –  Decimal is better but •  We have only two “values”, high and low, in our gates –  So, •  Let us think about why decimal is better •  And can we design a representation that allows us to use the binary (hi/ low) gates that we have. Introduction to CS231 51 Nothing special about 10! •  Decimal system (and the idea of “0”) was invented in India around 100-500AD •  Why did they use 10? Anything special about it? –  Not really. –  Probably the fact that we have 10 fingers influenced this •  Will a base other than 10 work? –  Sure: 345 in b...
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