Study Guide To exam 3

Study Guide To exam 3 - Study Guide for Exam III, Geol. 111...

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Study Guide for Exam III, Geol. 111 This study guide offers an outline-summary of the major points covered in the lecture material for Geol. 111. It includes example questions. It is recommended that for a thorough preparation for Exam III students should know the material in the study guide and the material in the lecture power points to which the guide refers. Climate Change What is Paleoclimatology? What is a climate proxy ? Climate Proxies used to study past climates Glacial Ice Volume/Features What is the response of alpine glaciers to global warming/cooling? (in terms of balance between zone of accumulation and zone of ablation) Evidence of former glaciation: erosional (U-shaped valley, striations, arête, cirque, horns); depositional (moraines, outwash plains) Ice Sheets or Ice Caps Ice Cores (layered; age of layers increases with depth of core) Oxygen isotopes of ice sensitive to atmospheric temperatures 18 O/ 16 O ratio decreases with warming, increases with cooling Ocean Sediment Cores (layered; age of layers increases with depth of core) Oxygen isotopes of shells of carbonate microfossils sensitive to ocean temperatures; 18 O/ 16 O ratio varies as above Tree Rings (each ring = 1 year of growth; width of rings especially sensitive to precipitation) Lake Sediments (layered; contains pollen of plants and therefore records vegetation changes through time) Paleosols (buried old soils, sensitive to climate; contains evidence of some organisms that live in soil) Results of Paleoclimate Studies and Possible Causes of Climate Variation Long Term: ~15 million supercycles between glacial-interglacial events; cause uncertain; What features are affected by shifting continental landmasses? 65 million years to present: temperature maximum around 50 million years; 12 ºC higher in polar region than present;
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5 million years to present: see 41 and 100 thousand year cycles in record; related to eccentricity and obliquity of Earth; What does eccentricity refer to? Obliquity? 450 thousand years to present: shows details of glacial and interglacial events; strong correlation between temperature variations and CO 2 (and CH 4 ) concentrations in atmosphere 12 thousand years to present: shows temperature maximum around 7 to 8 thousand years ago Results of Modern Climate Studies Historic Time: Definite rise in global Temperature 0.75 ºC Rise in sea level 0.5 ft (0.17 m) Precipitation has changed, some areas wetter, some drier Reduction in ice volume (Alpine glaciers have retreated; polar ice cap has shrunk
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course GEOL 111 taught by Professor Pinter during the Spring '08 term at SIU Carbondale.

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Study Guide To exam 3 - Study Guide for Exam III, Geol. 111...

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