11_Aquatic - Aquatic Ecosystems Classify according to...

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Geography & Structure Physical & chemical conditions: Patterns of variation in: light, temperature nutrient availability water movements salinity O 2 concentration Biology Classify according to: Aquatic Ecosystems
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Types of Aquatic Ecosystem Freshwater Ecosystems Standing Water- lakes & ponds Moving Water- rivers & streams Marine Ecosystems Open Ocean Shallow marine waters Shorelines Transitional Communities Estuaries Marshes/Mangroves Wetlands
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Aquatic Ecosystems Most of the planet (> 70%) is covered by water Most of that water (> 97%) is seawater
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Open Ocean: largest continuous environment on Earth Ridges & Trenches Marianas Trench: 11 km deep Average depth Pacific: 4000 m Atlantic: 3900 m Indian: 3900 m Geography & structure: 3 major basins Pacific Atlantic Indian
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Open Ocean: Geography & structure Zones: shoreline open ocean - littoral (intertidal) - neritic: from coast to margin of continental shelf (ca. 200 m deep) - oceanic surface bottom - epipelagic (to 200 m) - mesopelagic (200-1000 m) - bathypelagic (1000-4000 m) - abyssal (4000-6000 m) - hadal (deeper)
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Light: most (80%) solar energy absorbed in first 10 m Color absorption: - UV & infrared - red, orange, yellow, green - blue - after ca. 600 m: dark Open Ocean: photic & aphotic zones photic zone: shallow (top 100 m); large area, but nutrient limitations; phytoplankton
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Upwellings Open Ocean: ocean currents distribute nutrients; key for productivity Gyres :
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