Africa gyres plastic accumulation law et al 2010

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Unformatted text preview: hat are sustained by upwelling off coast of S. Africa Gyres & plastic accumulation Law et al. 2010. Science 329, 1185-1188 Open Ocean: photic & aphotic zones deep sea: most energy from detritus falling from above (predators, grazers) Chemosynthesis-based communities, next to hydrothermal vents deepest hydrothermal vent ever discovered in the oceans of Earth. 5,000 meters below the ocean's surface. Shallow marine waters (neritic zone) influenced by - temp - latitude - silt runoff Kelp forests: - rocky shores - temperate; max. water temp < 20 C Coral reefs: - warmer water Sea grass beds: - warmer water - higher silt Marine shores (littoral zone) tides = alternate marine-terrestrial conditions; well oxygenated, high light; substrates for anchoring zonation according to ability to tolerate desiccation, waves, temp changes; Supratidal fringe Intertidal zone Subtidal zone productive & diverse Freshwater ecosystems Rivers & Streams (lotic habitats) Lakes (lentic habitats) Freshwater wetlands usually 0.005% salt; exceptions: Great Salt Lake: 5-27% salt Dead Sea: 30% salt Rivers & streams three-dimensional structure: 1) length: Rapids-Riffles-Runs-Pools (vary in flow speed) 2) w idth: wetted (always w. water) active channel (water annually during high flow) riparian zone (river-land interface) 3) vertical: water surface water column benthic zone hyporheic zone (transition) phreatic zone (ground water) flow variation Stream Continuum predictable changes in stream structure & function from headwaters to mouth Flow Speed (+) Oxygen (+) Temperature (-) Nutrients (-) Productivity (-) Complexity (-) Flow Speed (-) Oxygen (-) Temperature (+) Nutrients (+) Productivity (+) Complexity (+) energy source Coarse Particulate Organic Matter (CPOM) Fine Particulate Organic Matter (FPOM) Photosynthetic organisms Lakes most freshwater in a few large lakes Oligotrophi...
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