6+ProductivityTrophicLevels

Ectoparasitoid host always consumed killed by

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Unformatted text preview: is by many parasite individuals Parasitoids Endo vs. Ectoparasitoid Host always consumed (killed) by parasitoid (one or a few individuals) Parasites & parasitoids manipulate behavior & physiology of host Ex: ectoparasitoid wasp keeps spider host alive as it feeds on it; then induces it to weave special web for it to pupate on Species interactions Neutral (commensalism) Beneficial (mutualism) Exploitative herbivore Some partners may benefit, but none suffer All partners benefit Obligate vs. facultative One partner benefits, the other suffers carnivore predator if eat whole plant (e.g., seed predators) parasite if eat only part of a plant parasitoid consume whole individual (or more) parasite consume part of host (one parasite doesn’t consume one whole host individual) Commensalism benefits one sp; other is not affected Frog: protection for clutch Phoresy: Mites use fly as transport to carrion Hermit crab: gains protection Snail: not affected (already dead) Epiphyte uses tree to get to light Mutualism benefits both spp Obligate: one species cannot survive without the other Facultative: both species can survive without the other Obligate lichens (fungus & algae) Facultative Gobi fish - vigilance Shrimp - burrow for protection Mutualism Trophic partners in obtaining energy & nutrients bacteria in rumen of ungulates, Defensive Dispersive food/shelter in return for defense food in return for dispersal cleaning mutualism lichens, Mycorrhizae an...
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This document was uploaded on 03/17/2014 for the course BIO SCI 310 at Wisconsin Milwaukee.

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