Unformatted text preview: s systematic approaches to constructing multistep methods in the next
two sections however, let us illustrate the approach using the method of undetermined
coe cients. With this technique we
1. assume a particular form of the general formula (5.1.2) by, possibly, restricting
some of the coe cients and
2 2. determine the remaining coe cients of (5.1.2) such that they match terms of a
Taylor's series expansion of the exact ODE solution to as high a degree as possible.
Equivalently, the coe cients can be determined so that (5.1.2) produces the exact
ODE solution when y(t) is a polynomial to as high a degree as possible.
Here's an example.
Example 5.1.1. Consider a multistep method of the form yn + 1yn;1 + 2 yn;2 = h 1fn;1 :
This explicit twostep formula has three undetermined coe cients ( 1, 2, and 1) and
we'll determine them so that the numerical method is exact when y(t) is an arbitrary
quadratic polynomial. Since the multistep method is linear, it su ces to make the
formula exact when y(t) is 1, t, and t2. If y(t) = 1 then f (t y) = 0 and (5.1.2) yields
1+ 1 + 2 = 0: (5.1.3a) When y(t) = t, f (t y) = 1 and (5.1.2) yields tn + 1(tn ; h) + 2 (tn ; 2h) = h 1:
Using (5.1.3a), ; 1 ; 2 2 = 1: (5.1.3b) When y(t) = t2 , f (t y) = 2t and (5.1.2) yields t2 + 1(tn ; h)2 + 2(tn ; 2h)2 = 2h 1(tn ; h):
n
This may be simpli ed by (5.1.3a,b) to
1 + 4 2 = ;2 1 : (5.1.3c) The solution of (5.1.3a,b,c) is
1 =0 2 = ;1
3 1 =2 thus, the method is yn = yn;2 + 2hfn;1 n = 2 3 ::: : (5.1.4a) This scheme is called the \leap frog" scheme. It has only one function evaluation per
step and, once started (with y0 and y1), is as simple as the explicit Euler method.
Without having introduced a formal de nition of the local discretization error for
multistep methods, let's use our experience with onestep methods to de ne it for the
leap frog method as
y(tn) ; y(tn;2) ; f (t y(t )):
n=
n;1
n;1
2h
Since (5.1.4a) is exact when y(t) is a quadratic polynomial, we may either infer or a
Taylor's series expansion to show that
n = Ch2 y000( n) n 2 (tn;2 tn): The numerical constant C may also be determined by the method of undetermined
coe cients. To do this, we select the simplest OD...
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 Spring '14
 JosephE.Flaherty
 Numerical Analysis, The Land, yn, Tn, Numerical ordinary differential equations

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