201-01_introduction

Commercehandicraftindustryseenastheleastimportant

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Unformatted text preview: cally necessary for people to adjust to nature rather than fight against it. V. Agriculture V. Agriculture Growing of rice as the most important agricultural activity. Agriculture was the foundation of Chinese/East Asian civilization with the implications: Livestock farming neglected. Commerce/handicraft industry seen as the least important. Defining Chinese social customs, physical quality of Chinese people, and Chinese national character. Strong sense of Chinese culture, receptive of other cultures while not easy to be absorbed by other cultures. Practical sciences such as agronomy, astronomy, and medicine were well developed. VI. Rules for Society VI. Rules for Society Just as attitude towards nature reflects rules governing the universe, Confucianism provides strict rules to govern society that reflect the larger heavenly order. The purpose was to create a harmonious society based on hierarchical relationships. Harmony is achieved by working together in a group ­ collectivism. Family is the most important and immediate group, which is organized hierarchically. “Collective responsibility.” Confucianism also stresses that those at the top act responsibly and benevolently. VII. The Traditional System VII. The Traditional System Based on the moral codes of Confucianism and stressed personal morality as the foundation of society. “Self­regulating society:” although there were laws, most conflicts should be settled by the informal community and family networks. Government was seen as the extended family where the emperor played the role of father to everyone. Society organized into four classes with the following ranking: scholar­officials, farmers, artisans and merchants....
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