US FINAL STUDY GUIDE - HONORS US HISTORY FINAL EXAM STUDY...

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HONORS US HISTORY FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE YOU’RE ALL WELCOME FOR THE PAST 4 EXAMS Sincerely, Marty Stenson, Jon Willmot, and Lauren Ogren The Cold War (Chapter 12) End of WWII: After war, US leaders viewed past policies as mistakes, so they sought new ways to keep US safe Roots of the Cold War o USSR/USA differ USA – capitalist democracy, free elections, economic/religious freedom, private property, respect for individual difference USSR – communist dictatorship controls all political, economic, and military decisions, no freedoms o Truman and Clement Attlee (GB) wanted Stalin to change, but he refused to make a commitment to allow free elections in Eastern EU Truman feeling that Soviets were “planning world conquest” Cold War : 46 yr struggle between US and Soviet Union without a direct “hot” conflict o Cold War lasted 46 years Iron Curtain: Churchill described imaginary line dividing Europe (E = communist, W = democracy) Truman Doctrine: Greece and Turkey needed aid to fight communism, so Truman gave $400M aid, and promised aid to all other nations against communism George F Kennan: “X” published article coining term containment: containing communism from expanding any further than it was already Marshall Plan 1948: provided food/fuel/money to jumpstart W Europe’s economy o Supposedly used to deter countries from adopting Communist govs Berlin Airlift: Stalin blockaded all road/rail/water traffic from W Germany to W Berlin For a year US/GB supplied W Berlin through massive airlift North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): 1949 o military alliance to counter Soviet expansion o 12 W European/North American nations agreed to act together in defense of W Europe Warsaw Pact: Communist rival to NATO; all communist states of East Europe except Yugoslavia Mao Zedong led communists and fought civil war against Chiang Kai-shek o Soviet supported Mao and US supported Jiang (corrupt) o Mao dominated o US “lost China” The Korean War: o Korea divided at 38 th parallel o North Korea was communists and US sent aid to South Korea o North Korea began a military buildup and in 1950 North Korean forces attacked across 38 th parallel 90,000 troops were armed with powerful tanks and other Soviet weapons and within days North took over capital of Seoul and set out after the retreated South army
o UN aid South forces met up with retreating to SE corner near city of Pusan o General Douglas MacArthur planned a strike on port city of Inchon communist forces flee for North Korean border o MacArthur attacked north of 38 th despite of warnings Defied Truman’s Limited War Policy o Chinese soldiers attacked South Korea and US positions (troops forced back) o Eisenhower elected as President, went to Korea, talked of use of nuclear weapons (& Stalin died) led to settle of conflict o 1953 cease-fire Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO): defensive alliance to prevent spread of

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