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Unformatted text preview: irls one X balls up and doesn’t work (called a barbody), and those genes are not
expressed, but the woman will still be a carrier for the gene. As every X-linked gene is expressed in
males as there is nothing to "mask" a recessive genotype, as there would be in females, so males are
more susceptible to some diseases than females.
What is epigenetics? What does it tell us about the interaction of genes and the
Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than the DNA
sequence of an organism. Chemical reactions switch parts of genome off and on at strategic times.
Epigenetic changes produced in a gene in one generation can be “handed down” to the next 6 generation, even though the changes are not passed through genes. ex: a mother’s behavior changes
the epigenetic regulation of genes in a child’s brain and the child displays the same behavior which
alters the epigenetic markings of the child.
What is an instinctive behavior? What are some examples?
Instinctive behavior occurs naturally with no thought. An example would be if you touch a hot
stove, you jerk away without thinking about it.
What does the “monogamy gene” in voles code for? How does this affect behavior?
Whether a vole is monogamous or promiscuous depends on the allele for different forms of the
regulatory region which determines how much vasopressin (a neurotransmitter associated with
nurturing behavior) a vole has. If a vole has the “monogamy gene,” it will mate with the same vole,
and if a vole does not, it will mate with many voles.
What is the “warrior” gene? What does it code for? What are the effects of certain
alleles of this gene?
The “warrior gene” codes for a protein called monoamine oxidase which breaks down
neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin in the brain. There are several alleles for the
gene; if you have the shorter allele, you will not produce as much monoamine oxidase and will be
more likely to take risks and have aggressive behavior.
What are the genes that have been associated with risk-taking? How do the protein
products of these genes likely affect behavior?
The DRD4 gene codes for the receptor for dopamine, the neurotransmitter that makes you feel good.
There are two common alleles for the gene: one that has 7 repeated DNA sequences and one that has
4. People will the 7 repeats are more likely to take risks because their dopamine receptor is less
effective at binding with dopamine. Therefore, they must take more risks so they can experience the
pleasurable effects of dopamine.
Is intelligence heritable?
Heritability of intelligence is about .75. The other .25 is based on environmental influences.
Why does scientific misconduct have such a negative effect on the scientific
It causes the public to lose trust in scientists.
What is peer review?
Peer review is a system that requires all new scientific discoveries, ideas and implications to be
scrutinized and critiqued by expert scientists before they become widely accepted.
What types of things generate conflict of interest in science?
Funding mechanism (grants), commercial interests (company wants your conclusion to favor their
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