BioTest1StudyGuide

BioTest1StudyGuide - 1 Bio Test 1 Study Guide What is PCR...

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1 Bio Test 1 Study Guide What is PCR? How does it work? Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a process that creates large amounts of DNA from a small sample. 1. Heat up sample to break Hydrogen bonds between template strands. 2. Cool sample to allow primers to bind the ends of each of the two template strands. 3. DNA polymerase attaches to primers and makes a copy of each template strand. 4. Steps are repeated until there is enough DNA to be run on a gel. What is gel electrophoresis? Researchers use gel electrophoresis to separate nucleic acid molecules or proteins based on their size. A negative charge repels molecules from one end of the gel, while a positive charge attracts them toward the other end. Gel electrophoresis can also be used to detect mutations in DNA. DNA with deletion mutations will be closer to bottom of gel, insertions closer to the top. What are the characteristics of living things? Respond to stimulus Can reproduce Can capture and use energy Can adapt and evolve Are composed of cells Can store and transmit genetic info Have homeostasis- can maintain a constant environment What is the structure of the DNA molecule? DNA is a polymer made up of two strands of nucleotides twisted into a structure called a double helix. Each nucleotide consists of a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a nitrogen containing base attached to the sugar, and a phosphate group. There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA, differing only in the nitrogenous base. The four nucleotides are given one letter abbreviations as shorthand for the four bases. A is for adenine (purine) G is for guanine (purine) C is for cytosine (pyrimidines) T is for thymine (pyrimidines) Hydrogen bonds join bases of one strand to bases of the opposite strand in pairs (A-T, G-C), but bonds are weak enough to be broken when the two strands separate for replication. The two strands are antiparallel (run in opposite directions). One is a free phosphate group attached to a 5' carbon atom of a sugar group, and the opposite strand begins with a free hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the 3' carbon atom of a sugar group. How does the DNA molecule store genetic information? DNA stores the information on how to produce specific sequences of RNA, through a sequence of nucleotide bases. This information is then used to make various proteins that an organism uses to function/grow. How were the experiments done that suggested that DNA was the genetic material, and not protein? Mendel- Used pea plants to discover the basic units of heredity- could predict traits of future offspring- described “heritable factor” which would later be discovered to be DNA Thomas Hunt Morgan- Used color of fruit fly eyes to provide evidence for genes. Red eyed are dominant, white are recessive. When the offspring reproduced, one half of the male babies had red, all female had red. Therefore, the gene for eye color must only be found on the X chromosome.
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2 Frederick Griffith- Strep can have two different strains: smooth or rough. When the smooth
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