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Unformatted text preview: H+ ions and
removes them from solution. The structure and activity of proteins depends on pH. pH should be
close to 7 (6-8) for proteins to work correctly.
Why are carbon atoms the basis of all organic molecules?
Carbon has the ability to form large diverse molecules. Having 4 outer electrons, it shares electrons
with other atoms to form 4 covalent bonds with a variety of bond angles.
What are the different functional groups found on organic molecules? 8 • What do I need to know:
The subunits from which each macromolecule is constructed
How the monomer subunits are assembled into polymers
(condensation reaction – what is it?
Recognize the differences between them (recognize the subunits
and the macromolecules when you see them) What are the four major groups of macromolecules?
Function: energy storage, structural components of cells
Subunits from which they are constructed: six carbon sugars (monosaccharides)
Function: some are enzymes (speed up rates of rxn), some create hormones, some transport
and store molecules
Subunits from which they are constructed: amino acids
Function: long term energy storage, structural components of cell membranes, signaling
Subunits from which they are constructed: varies among different types of lipids
● Nucleic Acids
Function: info storage and processing in the cell
Subunits from which they are constructed: nucleotides
What is dehydration synthesis/condensation reaction?
a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule with the loss of a
What is the major storage form of sugar in cells? What is the major energy-storing
macromolecule in plants? In animals? Of what are they composed? What are the
differences between them?
Major storage form of sugar is carbohydrates
Plants- starch is major energy-storing macromolecule-a string of glucose molecules with less
branching than glycogen
Animals- glycogen is major energy-storing macromolecule-also made of glucose, and is more 9 branching
What are enzymes? How do they work to speed up chemical reactions?
Enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy by bringing
together substrates and orient them correctly, induces bond stress (breaks bonds), makes easirt for
substartes to react. Most are proteins.
What kind of a molecule is ATP? What special role does it play in cells? Why?
Adenosine triphosphate is an energy-carrying molecule that captures chemical energy obtained
from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes like driving
metabolic reactions that would not occur automatically transporting needed substances across
membranes; and doing mechanical work, such as moving muscles.
What is a genome?
the entirety of an organism’s hereditary information encoded in DNA and RNA
What is the basic method used to sequence DNA?
1. Use restriction enzymes to break DNA at specific sequences so it can be distributed to different
2. Next a primer is added to one of the template strands. This primer is specifically constructed so
that its 3' end is located next to the DNA sequence of interest. One of the nucleo...
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