BioTest1StudyGuide

Carbon has the ability to form large diverse

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Unformatted text preview: H+ ions and removes them from solution. The structure and activity of proteins depends on pH. pH should be close to 7 (6-8) for proteins to work correctly. Why are carbon atoms the basis of all organic molecules? Carbon has the ability to form large diverse molecules. Having 4 outer electrons, it shares electrons with other atoms to form 4 covalent bonds with a variety of bond angles. What are the different functional groups found on organic molecules? 8 • What do I need to know: • Functions • The subunits from which each macromolecule is constructed • How the monomer subunits are assembled into polymers (condensation reaction – what is it? • Recognize the differences between them (recognize the subunits and the macromolecules when you see them) What are the four major groups of macromolecules? ● Carbohydrates Function: energy storage, structural components of cells Subunits from which they are constructed: six carbon sugars (monosaccharides) ● Proteins Function: some are enzymes (speed up rates of rxn), some create hormones, some transport and store molecules Subunits from which they are constructed: amino acids ● Lipids Function: long term energy storage, structural components of cell membranes, signaling Subunits from which they are constructed: varies among different types of lipids ● Nucleic Acids Function: info storage and processing in the cell Subunits from which they are constructed: nucleotides What is dehydration synthesis/condensation reaction? a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule with the loss of a water molecule What is the major storage form of sugar in cells? What is the major energy-storing macromolecule in plants? In animals? Of what are they composed? What are the differences between them? Major storage form of sugar is carbohydrates Plants- starch is major energy-storing macromolecule-a string of glucose molecules with less branching than glycogen Animals- glycogen is major energy-storing macromolecule-also made of glucose, and is more 9 branching What are enzymes? How do they work to speed up chemical reactions? Enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy by bringing together substrates and orient them correctly, induces bond stress (breaks bonds), makes easirt for substartes to react. Most are proteins. What kind of a molecule is ATP? What special role does it play in cells? Why? Adenosine triphosphate is an energy-carrying molecule that captures chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes like driving metabolic reactions that would not occur automatically transporting needed substances across membranes; and doing mechanical work, such as moving muscles. What is a genome? the entirety of an organism’s hereditary information encoded in DNA and RNA What is the basic method used to sequence DNA? 1. Use restriction enzymes to break DNA at specific sequences so it can be distributed to different labs. 2. Next a primer is added to one of the template strands. This primer is specifically constructed so that its 3' end is located next to the DNA sequence of interest. One of the nucleo...
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This test prep was uploaded on 03/16/2014 for the course BIO 101 at Wake Forest.

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