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Unformatted text preview: tides should be
radioactively or fluorescently labeled so that the final product can be detected on a gel.
3.Run gel electrophoresis on different sized fragments.
4. Put info for each DNA sequence in a database so all scientists can use it.
What is the human genome project? What did we learn from it? What does it allow us
The Human Genome project is an international scientific research project with a primary goal of
determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up human DNA, and of identifying and
mapping the total genes of the human genome. It allows us to test DNA for diseases and compare our
DNA to that of other organisms. We learned from it that 99.9% of DNA is the same in all people, there
are approx. 30,000 genes in the human genome, and that less than 2% of nucleotides in the human
genome encode for the production of proteins.
What are the ethical concerns associated with it?
people’s DNA is being published, allows for genetic testing that can tell people how susceptible they
are to disease
Who is Craig Venter?
Craig Venter is the scientist who developed a new, faster way of sequencing the human genome which
involved slicing chromosomes into bits, sequencing them, and letting a computer system order the
What are the advantages and disadvantages of patenting genes?
Advantages: gives researchers financial return on research, ensures progress in gene research
Disadvantages: can make certain tests very expensive, hinders innovation, puts a patent on natural
material that is a highly personal component of every human being
What is pre-implantation genetic diagnosis? How is it done? What is it used for? Why
is it controversial?
Preimplantation genetic testing is a technique used to identify genetic defects in embryos created
through in vitro fertilization (IVF) before pregnancy. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) refers
specifically to when one or both genetic parents has a known genetic abnormality and testing is
performed on an embryo to determine if it also carries a genetic abnormality. Some abuse it to
choose sex of baby, and it can be used to choose the embryo with the best qualities. It is done by:
● Mother undergoes normal in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment to collect and fertilise her 10 ●
The embryo is grown in the laboratory for two - three days until the cells have divided and
the embryo consists of around eight cells.
The blastocyst is removed from the embryo.
The cells are tested to see if the embryo from which they were removed contains the gene
that causes the genetic condition in the family.
Embryos unaffected by the condition are transferred to the womb to allow them to develop. How is DNA fingerprinting done? What is it used for?
DNA fingerprinting is a way to identify a person using DNA. Non-coding DNA contains many
variations that can be used to distinguish one person from another. This DNA can be cut into shorter
pieces by enzymes called "restriction endonucleases". The pieces of DNA can then be separated
according to their size on a gel.
What are the technological tools that allowed gene cloning to be developed? What is a vector?
It is whatever you use to carry your gene into the host organism – a plasmid or a virus.
What is a plasmid? How do they function in bacteria? Why do they...
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