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lecture7 Input Output and Secondary Memory 2013

lecture7 Input Output and Secondary Memory 2013 -...

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Input/Output Systems and Secondary Memory Lecture 7
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The Uber Stack This is what computers are made of! Applications Middleware Operating Systems Computers Processors Memories Display Components Interconnects Materials Physics
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Electronic Digital Computers based on stored program design processor system CPU memory input/output system input/output devices secondary storage Just about everything outside of the CPU/Main Memory falls under the general classification of a ᾿Peripheral Device῀ Peripher als
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I/O Subsystem Input/Output exchanging data and instructions between the user and the computer The user may be a human being, but it may also be a machine….like a car engine! Secondary Storage auxiliary storage for data and instructions
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Secondary Memory (Storage) Backup or alternative storage in place of (volatile) RAM cheaper, mass storage for long term use secondary memory devices (and media) are distinguished by their capacities , speed , and cost
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Memory Hierarchy I increasing access speeds decreasing cost per bit RAM HARD DISKS REMOVABLE DISKS OPTICAL DISCS FLOPPY DISKS MAGNETIC TAPE
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Memory Hierarchy II Flash Memor y
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Types of Access RANDOM ACCESS (Main Memory, Flash) items are independently addressed access time is constant DIRECT ACCESS items are independently addressed in regions access time is variable —though not significantly SEQUENTIAL ACCESS items are organized in sequence ( linearly ) access time is significantly variable
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Secondary Memory
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Magnetic Tape stores data represented by magnetized particles in linear tracks magnetized clusters or domains are aligned to represent binary codes
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Longitudinal (9-track) Magnetic Tape had a density of 6250 bits per inch
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Tape Drives in action…1950’s-80’s
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Floppy / Hard Disks Floppy DiskῊfits in your shirt pocket !
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