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carbohyd - Carbohydrates Typical formula Cx(H2O)y eg...

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1 Carbohydrates Typical formula: C x (H 2 O) y , eg glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 . Structure --- Simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides; one sugar unit. Monosaccharides can combine to form di-, tri-, polysaccharides. These more complex carbohydrates can be hydrolyzed to give their constituent monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are usually, at least partly, polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. Saccharides that are at least partly polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones are reducing sugars. D-glucose is a monosaccharide and is the most abundant organic compound.
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2 ±²³´µ¶·¸¹ º²³´»¶¹¼½´¾¹¿»¾¹ º²³´µ¶·¸¹ À Á  À Á  À À  Á À À À À ÂÁ     À À  Á À À À À     À The chiral center that determines D- or L- is the one furtherest from the carbonyl. Most naturally occurring sugars are in the D- family. The family name for sugars has the suffix -ose. Monosaccharides can be characterized as to how many carbons they have: triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose. They can also be characterized as to whether they are aldehydes, aldose, or ketones, ketose. By combination erythrose and threose are aldotetroses.
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3 ± ± ²³ ³ ³ ±³ ² ³ ± ± ± ³² ³ ³ ± ± ± ³ ³ ² ³ ± ± ± ³ ³ ±
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carbohyd - Carbohydrates Typical formula Cx(H2O)y eg...

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