userdata-paziras-Chem51-Chap_10

Inbrnstedlowrydefinit ionanypairof mo

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Unformatted text preview: nit ion, an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor. + – HCl (g) + H2O (l) → H3O (aq) + Cl (aq) (acid) (base) – NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) → NH4+ (aq) + OH (aq) (base) (acid) · A substance that can act as a Brønsted­Lowry acid and base (such as water) is called amphiprotic. · In Brønsted­Lowry definit ion, any pair of mo lecules or ions that can be interconverted by transfer of a proton is called conjugate acid­base pair. – + HCl (g) + H2O (l) → Cl (aq) + H3O (aq) (acid) (base) (conjugate base (conjugate acid of HCl) of H2O) – NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) → NH4+ (aq) + OH (aq) (base) (acid) (conjugate acid (conjugate base of NH3) of H2O) 2 Chemistry 51 Chapter 10 BRØNSTED­LOWRY ACIDS & BASES Examples: 1. Ident ify the conjugate acid­base pairs for each reaction shown below: – H2O + Cl – ® HCl + OH – – C6H5OH + C2H5O ® C6H5O + C2H5OH 2. Write the formula for the conjugate acid for each base shown: – HS NH3 CO32– 3. Write the formula for the conjugate base for each acid shown: HI CH3OH HNO3 3 Chemistry 51 Chapter 10 ACID & BASE STRENGTH · According to the Arrhenius definit io n, the strength of acids and bases is based on the amount of their ionization in water. · Strong acids and bases are those that ionize completely in water. · Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes. – HCl (aq) ¾¾ H (aq) + Cl (aq) ®+ – NaOH (s) ¾H2 O¾ Na+ (aq) + OH (aq) ¾® · Weak acids and bases are those that ionize partially in water, and are therefore written as ¾¾ ® reversible reactions (indicated by ¬¾ ). ¾ · Weak acids and bases are weak electrolytes. ¾H 2 O¾ ¾ ® HC 2 H 3O 2 ¬¾ ¾ H + (aq) + C 2 H 3O 2 (aq) ¾¾ ® NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) ¬¾ NH + (aq) + OH (aq) ¾ 4 Ionization of Strong vs. Weak acids 4 Chemistry 51 Chapter 10 ACID & BASE STRENGTH · Listed below are the formulas and names of co mmon acids and bases, and...
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