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Unformatted text preview: comparison of their characteristics. COMMON STRONG ACIDS & BASES HCl HBr HI HNO3 H2SO4 Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydro iodic acid Nitric acid Sulfuric acid LiOH NaOH KOH Ca(OH)2 Ba(OH)2 Lithium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Barium hydroxide COMMON WEAK ACIDS & BASES HC2H3O2 H2CO3 H3PO4 HF HCN H2S Acet ic acid Carbonic acid Phosphoric acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrocyanic acid Hydrosulfuric acid NH3 CO(NH2)2 5 Ammo nia Urea Chemistry 51 Chapter 10 IONIZATION OF WATER
· As noted previously, water can act both as an acid and a base.
· In pure water, one water mo lecule donates a proton to another water molecule to produce ions. ®
H 2 O + H 2 O ¬¾ H 3 O + + OH ¾¾
Base Acid é Proton ù
êë acceptor úû Acid é Proton ù
êë donor úû é Proton ù
r Ba e s é Proton ù
êë acce tor úû
p · In pure water, the transfer of protons between water mo lecules produces equal + –
numbers of H3O and OH ions. However, the number of ions produced in pure water is very small, as indicated below: Pure water +
[H3O ] = [OH ] = 1.0 x 10 7 M + –
· When the concentrations of H3O and OH are multiplied together, the ion product constant (Kw) is formed. +
– Kw = [H3O ] x [OH ] –
= (1.0 x 10 7 M) x (1.0 x 10 7 M) = 1.0 x 10 14
· All aqueous solut ions have H3O and OH ions. An increase in the concentration of one of the ions will cause an equilibrium shift that causes a decrease in the...
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