Ali raza computerbus ali raza computerbus

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Unformatted text preview: a Processor Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data), it does not have to do the more time­consuming reading of data from larger memory. Ali Raza Identification of factors affecting performance Measuring Performance When we measure performance we usually mean how fast the computer carries out instructions. The measure we use is MIPS, millions of instructions per second. MIPS affected by – The clock speed of the processor – The speed of the buses – The speed of memory access. Ali Raza Identification of factors affecting performance The Clock Every processor has a clock which ticks continuously at a regular rate. Synchronises all the components. Cycle time measured in MHz or GHz 200 MHz (megahertz) means the clock ticks 200,000,000 times a second (P1 ­1995) 1.4 GHz (gigahertz) is 1,400,000,000 times a second (P4 – 2001) and so on. Ali Raza Computer Bus A bus is a set of multiple lines that is used to communicate signals in the form of bits from one component to another one within the CPU. Buses are the basic source of interconnection among CPU components like processor, memory and ports for I/O peripherals. Ali Raza Computer Bus Ali Raza Computer Bus It is an important characteristic of a bus that it is a shared transmission medium, i.e multiple devices are connected with the bus and signals transmitted from any of these devices are available to be received by all other devices attached with the bus. A bus is composed of multiple communication lines so that each line is capable to transmit a signal that represents a binary 0 or 1 e.g 8­ bits data can be transmitted over a bus containing eight lines. A bus that connect major computer components (i.e processor, memory, and I/O) is called a system Ali Raza Computer Bus A system bus may be unidirectional or bidirectional. A system bus is said to be unidirectional if the signals transmission takes place in a single way, where as it will be called bi­ directional bus if there is a two­way transmission of signals in it. Ali Raza Computer Bus Usually system buses may consists of 50 to 100 separate lines so that each line may have a particular meaning or function. On any system bus, the lines can be classified into three functional groups named as data, address, and control lines Ali Raz...
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