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South Asian NationalismMarch 14, 2013Review•Who was Sukarno?•Who was Ho Chi Minh?•In which Southeast Asian nation were nationalism and Communism the most closely linked?•In which Southeast Asian country was nationalism the weakest before 1945? the modern nation-state•The modern nation-state is different from the countries of the past on two counts:•it is supposed to be a government chosen, and representing, the people it governs. (pp. 183-84)•it should rule in such a way that it improves the lives of those it governs-----it should not be a predatory government. Changes in British Rule•Civil Service exams implemented-but the exams held in London,not India!•A census required Indians to state their religious affiliation•The decline of Persian led to more publications in local languages, and the separation of Hindi from Urdu based on differences in writing. •The British introduced the notion of the rule of law, and some limited self-government (though not democracy) Religious Change•Reform movements to “purify” Hinduism by “returning” to the ancient Vedic scriptures. (pp. 184-88)•Reform movements in South Asian Islam, to discourage Muslims from going to shrines for Sufi saints. •Reform among the Sikhs: calls for Sikhs to stop participating in Hindu festivals•Printing press made religious books more available •Yoga is extracted from Hindu texts and taught overseas.