Gen Bio II- Prokaryotes Notes

Org prokaryodc genome cell size shape bacteria cell

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Unformatted text preview: lcohols called teichoic acids •  Appear purple (+) following Gram staining procedure 8 1/29/14 Gram- NegaDve Bacterial Cell Walls •  Have only a thin layer of pepDdoglycan •  Bilayer membrane outside the pepDdoglycan contains phospholipids, proteins, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) •  May be impediment to the treatment of disease •  Appear pink (- ) following Gram staining procedure Bacteria Cell Structure •  External structures •  Cell Envelope •  Cytoplasm –  No membrane bound organelles –  Endospores –  Nucleoid –  Ribosomes •  •  •  •  Bacterial Genome GeneDc Transfer Bacteria v. Archaea Prokaryotes v. Eukaryotes Cytoplasm of Bacteria •  No membrane bound organelles –  No nucleus, ER, mitochondria, or Golgi body •  Nucleoid –  DNA containing area of a prokaryoDc cell •  The locaDon for –  Metabolic Process –  DNA replicaDon, transcripDon & translaDon •  Endospore •  Ribosome 9 1/29/14 Endospores •  Unique structures produced by some bacteria •  Dormant •  Non- reproducDve •  Response to harsh condiDons –  Survive Thousands of years •  Durable •  Important as virulence factor Pearson EducaDon Nonmembranous Organelles •  Ribosomes –  TranslaDon (protein synthesis) –  Size measured in Svedbergs (S) –  70S RNA •  30S & 50S –  TranscripDon ProkaryoDc Genome •  Cell Size & Shape •  Bacteria Cell Structure •  Genome –  Chromosome –  Plasmid •  •  •  •  Growth GeneDc Transfer Bacteria v. Archaea Prokaryotes v. Eukaryotes 10 1/29/14 The Structure of ProkaryoDc Genomes •  ProkaryoDc chromosomes –  Main porDon of DNA, along with associated proteins and RNA –  ProkaryoDc cells are haploid (single chromosome copy) –  Typical chromosome is circular molecule of DNA in nucleoid The Structure of ProkaryoDc Genomes •  Plasmids –  Small molecules of DNA that replicate independently –  Not essenDal for normal metabolism, growth, or reproducDon –  Can confer survival advantages Plasmid •  ConjugaDon •  Resista...
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