Lect+4+empires+1+valmis+sound.pptx - Increased Markets...

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Increased Markets, Exchange & Formal Labour: The First Empires“Globalization Before History?”
”Ancient World Globalization” – the Emergence of “Civilizations”Legacies of the Neolithic and Copper AgesFertile Crescent – Mesopotamia & more [5500 – 2500 BP]Indus Valley [5300 – 3900 BP] The River Nile – Egypt & Kush [5150 – 2050 BP]“China” & South Asia [4700 BP - ]Sub-Saharan developments [4000 BP - ]*** Americas surveyed later
Moving Beyond Neolithic TimesBronze Starts Changing Neolithic World
Transitional Period : Chalcolithic/Copper Age (5,900 – 3,200 BCE)period of transition from stone tools / weapons to copperStart of empire regions like Mesopotamia -- villages emerge & then grow into “towns” – for instance, in Sumer where Eridu, Uruk, Ur & more emerged along the Tigris and Euphrates riversnew centres systems of trade which resulted in greater prosperityprosperity led both to larger structures, more authoritarian leadership and war [Sumer vs. Elam c. 5200 BP]also new technology better pottery (wheels); wheeled crafNew ideas: personal seals (Cylinder Seals) denoting ownership of property / serve as identity “card”
New technologies & ideas: more stable populations (no nomadic)metal work: smelted copper ca.s 4000 BC; BRONZE (90 % cu/10 % tin) [1stAlloy] c.3500 BCpotter's wheel -- faster/better containerssail based water transport / wheeled vehicles – allows longer range trade -- Baltic amber reached Minoan civilization; the Phoenicians had tin from the Cornwall region of “England” ...new agricultural ideas – irrigation; metal toolsKEY – population / surplus / organization to put to useorganization includes more formal political & spiritual infrastructuresAlso record keeping – early forms of writing + numerical recordsNeolithic legacy
Everywhere the vast majority did their tasks (agricultural or otherwise) with an eye on tradition or command, not new economic idea of surplus / profitfarmer / peasant (many terms) -- not really part of a “profit” or market economy, although any occasional surpluses (farm product) might be“urban” centres more active – not just leaders but artisans, merchants, bookkeepers, officials: a more varied/busy socio-economic settingWorst of work ofen done by Slaves – number and state of varied from relatively few to tens of thousands or even 1 m plus (Rome c. 30 BC)State structure (monarch) can be revenue-maximizing natural monopolist wealth largely to those with power/status [political, bureaucratic, religious], notdue to economic activity Not “ALL” New; Not all Benefit
Many“Empires”A Glanceat a Few,Starting in the “Fertile Crescent”
Empires & Economies in Ancient Mesopotamia,series of urban centres [“cities” but small] – extend control as “city states”,Brick build cities; invent concept of building arch & dome,Supported by economy that was mainly agricultural – but consider commerce:,Import copper, tin (for bronze) and timber,Produce woolen textiles, pottery and metal products (copper / bronze) ,Also export dried fish, grains and bronze / cu goods,traders range from Mediterranean to India Context : FOUR social groups – Elites and,

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