Lect+3+PreHist++valmis+sound.pptx - History Before History:...

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History Before History:Earliest Production & Exchanges of Goods & Services
History Before History:First Steps toward More Sophisticated EconomiesHumanity emergentHumanity “on the move”Paleolithic times: new technologies & “manufacturing”Enter Agriculture: Neolithic developmentsAgriculture brings change around the worldon the cusp of a New era
“Practical Steps”: early hominids “maximizing” productivity ?Bipedalism: suits more open lands (environmental shift);also less heat stress in hot weatherTools:2–3 million BP: flakes; scrapers; stone weaponsTool kit gains: axes, cleavers; controlled fire(c. 1 m.BP )Some tools not stone because it had higher “cost” (fewsources) therefore opt for wood, bamboo…Successesmovement (pre-Homo sapiensspreadbeyond Africa)V.L. Smith, “Humankind in Prehistory: Economy, Ecology, and Institutions,”The Political Economy of Customs and Culture,ed. T.L. Anderson and R.T. Simmons
PRODUCTIONby the “Toolmaker”Homo habilis – first of genus “Homo”[habilis = toolmakerin Latin]stones worked byHabilisfor perhaps 1,000,000 yearsseparate locations for new & repaired hand axesearliest manufacturing technique --cuttingarguably first sign of “skill” differentiation [createorrepair]alsodivision of labour[some deliver raw material (stone)];others create
New Peoples & New Activities Spread
Homo sapiens sapiensSpread Globally
Circa 500,000 to 12,000BPAlong with cultural and social exchanges (ideas, information, mates)– exchanges of tools, foods, animal and plant materials…. ?Trade and cultural networks linked the Neolithic in south Europe toMesolithic peoples of northern Europe – raising “standard ofliving” earlier limited by available flora and faunaTendency toward increased productivity -- estimated globalpopulation rises from 1 to perhaps 15 millionThose brave enough toguess– estimate GDP per capita about$158per annum (2013 dollars) – but to calculate is rather meaningless –no “money” for a long time yethe Earliest “Commerce”: Paleolithic exchanges
InnovationinManufacturingTechnologyChanging material properties120,000 BP& JoiningMaterials70,000+ BP /Harden stone tip & woodbelow spear tip by fire; joinedby resins (not just cord)Coating--30,000+ BP- survive as cavepaintingsMolding25,000 BPIn this case --formedfrom bone dust and clay,then superheated(burnt)Forming10,000 BPUse relative purechunks of metal[usually copper];pound & twist intodecorative objectsWith Cutting, the Six manufacturing techniquesnowknown in use by 10,000 years ago
Broadening Range of Productso50,000 BP [+/-] tool kit much expanded: projectile points,awls, needles ...

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Term
Fall
Professor
jeffreyvacante
Tags
Mesolithic

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