Lect+8+toward+mercantilism+valmis+sound.pptx - Late...

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Late Medieval Europe – TOWARD MORE CAPITALIST FORMSSteps toward Mercantilism Some very broad generalizations** Conditions were vastly different north and south of the Alps, and each nations, indeed region or even manor, had different contexts
Factors Moving toward Mercantilist CapitalismA changing EuropeChanging Economic Structures/ConceptsDemographicsUrbanizationMarket shiftsAgriculture revolutionInformation RevolutionTrade Networks Expand & StabilizeFinancial Infrastructures EmergeChanges of Many Sorts Mixed Reactions
1328Europe evolves at a Glance:two maps
EUROPE 1600TowardNations, Holy RomanEmpire still a “patch work”
Changes Leading Away from Medieval Era – “Structures” 113thC: better roads, canals & shipsmore long-distance trade in everyday goods; increased volume of trade; can sell for less & still make moneyagricultural gains & rise of towns more potential buyers Increased trade traders spread across Europe (& beyond) start of “international economic relations” (trade centres seek to protect their traders elsewhere); government presence adds to the mixincreased presence & sophistication of financial tools: banking / exchange tools; trade insurance; very basic “shareholding” also see start of “standardization” (quality, quantities) plus standard value for coinage & at least basic “rules” of trade
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Population & Economic Gains -- FactorsoLess war - end of Hundred Years War (1337-1453) – plenty of wars to come but relativelysmaller / less widespread oPlague – not entirely gone (especially Eastern Europe) but less common; more biological resistance/less mortalityoPopulation growth not even – relatively more increase in Northwest Europe; less in Mediterranean Europe but still upoMost significant gains – “urban” – from 8 – 12 % of population; largest centres grow most: by 1600 London & Paris over 400,000; another 26 cities 50,000+ [by 1750 some 560 centres 50,000+]oWith less war & plague increase in wider-scale trade oTrade & coinage growth silver & copper mining boom 1460s-1550soSpice trade (via Italy & Antwerp) growing
“Drivers” of Urbanization & Signs of New Economic ModesContinuing migration from rural areas (enclosure etc)Economic roles grow – trade, finance, artisanal productionMore efficient larger scale economies; have both skilled [Master artisans] and low cost labour [early “proletariat” of surplus artisans plus displaced rural population]Influence rural activities urban market leads to shifts in agriculture – more commercialized (market-based) farming (grains & items like wool, flax [for ???] , crops for dyes)Urban centres will also increase demand for fish (cod) & soonconsuming more materials from beyond Europe [corn, potatoes, sugar, tea, coffee, tobacco] [lectures to come]
Markets– Means of distributing scarce resources; buy / sell goods & services trade at demand-driven rather than “customary” rates- lessens role of state & land-based customs – in short, signs of a new

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