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Mercantilist Empires in Operation: European Perspectives France, 1637 : Seaport Busy Via Mercantilism
Mercantilism at Work: Europe’s Economic View around the Globe Globalization by the half dozen – global view Mercantilism or Imperialism ? Or the same ? Glimpses of “Nuts & bolts” Mercantilism Mercantilist Capitalism Run Amuck – “bubbles” Mercantilism reaches more than economies
Factors in Growth of Europe-Based Imperialism
Medieval Age: Trade was peripheral to system -- mainly for wealthy (luxury items) Mercantilist Capitalism: Trade central – luxuries to necessities Transportation development central to process thrives on differences Resources are spatially dispersed & scarce elsewhere Trade shapes differences Locations/empires seek competitive advantage [maps] Competing Empires : Globalization many times over
European Empires Start to Expand
Mercantilism Imperialism o Mercantilist empires manipulate the local economy to create favorable trade balances, sources of resources o Imperialism uses military force and sometimes immigration to foist mercantilism on “the empire” o Force inhabitants follow the dominant country’s laws & to benefit the Mercantilist “mother country” o Sometimes add to workforce (slavery) to supplement local populations either decimated or reluctant to comply o Often add socio-cultural imperialism too – language, dress & customs…especially religion --“ Christianity riding a cannonball
TAKING THE LAND : Religio-Legal Doctrines 14 th C. - Papal Bulls: entire globe is property of God -- Pope can delegate lands to Christian states 1494 - Treaty of Tordesillas - divides World -- part of Brazil & Asia to Portugal; rest to Spain As more knowledge emerges add Treaty of Zaragoza – 1529 Additional “Rationales”: 1) “ tabula rasa ” – only Christians or “Infidels” get counted, so people not of “recognized” faiths deemed barbarians incapable of understanding and thus undeserving of legal rights 2) Christian "duty" to spread the Gospel -- therefore "right" to engage in trade, cultivations , landholding without "interference“ 3) even if taking of lands technically unjust - the European law of "usage" - "spoils" of conquest cannot be taken away
TAKING THE LAND: [If You Don’t Listen to the Pope] The Papal Bulls / Treaties Ignored by Protestant states (& France) -- made their own sweeping claims to the Americas e.g. Virginia - 1609 - "from Sea to Sea, West and Northwest” e.g. (Henry the Great) France - all discovered by Verrazano (1525) and Cartier (1534/35) click e.g. 1671: Sieur de St. Lusson's French claim at what became Sault Ste. Marie [mouth of Lake Superior]: we take possession of the aid place of St. Mary of the Falls as well as of Lakes Huron and Superior, ... and of all other countries, rivers and tributaries, contiguous and adjacent thereunto, as well discovered as to be discovered, ... bounded on the one side by the Northern and Western Seas and on the other side by the Southern, including all its length or breadth...
1 st Slave Ship to Americas 1525; last known ship 1866; c.

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