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Tolerance at doses used by most americans 1 jointday

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Unformatted text preview: • You have to learn how to use marijuana – Novice users often report no effect on first use – Second or third time, sensitization may occur Second “reverse tolerance”, may be due to learning ‘how’ to get high to – Users learn to be more aware of the effects of the Users drug drug Tolerance Tolerance • Tolerance is dose dependent. Tolerance • At doses used by most Americans (1 joint/day), At little tolerance is observed little • No evidence for metabolic tolerance • Tolerance due primarily to desensitization and / Tolerance or downregulation of cannabinoid receptors or Tolerance Desensitization and downregulation of cannabinoid receptors produced by chronic THC exposure. Dependence Dependence Risk of dependence is related to drug use Risk patterns. People who progress to daily use have a 50% probability of become dependent. But most users do not become dependent. But Dependence is manifested as a difficulty in Dependence stopping one’s use, a craving for marijuana, and unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. and Withdrawal symptoms include irritability, Withdrawal anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, aggressiveness, decreased appetite. aggressiveness, Dependence – withdrawal symptoms Dependence Psychological Dependence Psychological • There is evidence that certain people can become There psychologically addicted to cannabis psychologically • Not an issue for the majority of users • Most users do not exhibit signs of addiction such as: Most a constant craving, high frequency use, the build-up of tolerance, or possible withdrawal symptoms of • However, a very small fraction of users do become However, dependent on daily use, and continue to use despite negative consequences (drug abuse). negative Adverse Long Term Effects Adverse Gateway Hypothesis: - Means that chronic marijuana smoking will lead to the use of other more harmful drugs of - Probably related to individual bio-psychosocial factors as Probably opposed to anything specific to THC’s effects on the brain. opposed Amotivational Syndrome: - Means that chronic marijuana smoking is responsible for a Means generalized sense of apathy and indifference to long term plans and goals plans Poor Health: - Chronic pulmonary disease; decreased production of sex Chronic hormones; poor outcomes in pregnancy; overdose? hormones; Spice – synthetic cannabinoids Spice • Dried, shredded plant Dried, material with chemical additives • “Not for human Not consumption” consumption” • Popular • Unknown pharmacology – Unknown stronger / weaker / different stronger • High heart-rate, vomiting, High hallucinations, agitation, confusion confusion Next time Lecture 17: Alcohol...
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