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Midterm 1 Study Guide

Self efficacy can be increased through enactive

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Unformatted text preview: ng- judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which the person belongs. Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations • • • Employment interview- a “good applicant” is probably characterized more by the absence of unfavorable characteristics than by the presence of favorable ones. Performance expectations- people attempt to validate their perceptions of reality even when these are fault. Self- fulfilling prophecy- a situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception. • Performance evaluation The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making Decisions- choices made from among two or more alternatives Problem- a discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state The way individuals make decisions and the quality of their choices are largely influenced by their perception Decision Making in Organizations • • • Often times, we think the best decision maker is rational. Rational- characterized by making consistent, value- maximizing choices within specified constraints • Rational decision- making model- A decision- making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome o Define the problem o Identify the decision criteria o Allocate weights to the criteria o Develop the alternatives o Evaluate the alternatives o Select the best alternative • Bounded rationality- Most people operate with bounded rationality. This is a process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. • Intuition- the least rational way of making decisions. Intuitive...
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