The modulation of chemical signals occurs via the

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Unformatted text preview: and is usually effected by the animal's moving upwind in response to the stimulus. The ability to modulate a chemical signal is limited, compared with communication by visual or acoustic means, but some pheromones may convey different meanings and consequently result in different behavioral or physiological responses, depending on their concentration or when presented in combination. The modulation of chemical signals occurs via the elaboration of the number of exocrine glands that produce pheromones. Some species, such as ants, seem to be very articulate creatures, but their medium of communication is difficult for humans to study and appreciate because of our own olfactory, insensitivity and the technological difficulties in detecting and analyzing these pheromones. Pheromones play numerous roles in the activities of insects. They may act as alarm substances, play a role in individual and group recognition, serve as attractants between sexes, mediate the formation of aggregations, identify foraging trails, and be involved in caste determination. For example, pheromones involved in caste determination include the "queen substance" produced by queen honey bees. Aphids, which are particularly vulnerable to predators because of their gregarious habits and sedentary nature, secrete an alarm pheromone when attacked that causes nearby aphids to respond by moving away. 40. What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) How insects use pheromones to communicate (B) How pheromones are produced by insects (C) Why analyzing insect pheromones is difficult (D) The different uses of pheromones among various insect species 41. The word "serve" in line I is closest in meaning to (A) improve (B) function (C) begin (D) rely 第 18 页 共 20 页 42. The purpose of the second mention of "hormones" in line 4 is to point out (A) chemical signals that are common among insects (B) specific responses of various species to chemical signals (C) similarities between two chemical substances (D) how insects produce different chemical substances 43. The word "sole" in line 6 is closest in meaning to (A) obvious (B) best (C) only (D) final 44. The passage suggests that the speed at which communication through pheromones occurs is dependent on how quickly they (A) lose their effectiveness (B) evaporate in the air (C) travel through the air (D) are produced by the body 45. According to the passage, the meaning of a message communicated through a pheromone may vary when the (A) chemical structure of the pheromone is changed (B) pheromone is excreted while other pheromones are also being excreted (C) exocrine glands do not produce the pheromone (D) pheromone is released near certain specific organisms 46. The word "detecting" in line 23 is closest in meaning to (A) controlling (B) storing (C) questioning (D) finding 47. According to paragraph 2, which of the following has made the study of pheromones difficult? (A) Pheromones cannot be easily reproduced in chemical laboratories. (B) Existing technology cannot fully explore the properties of pheromones. (C) Pheromones are highly volatile. (D) Pheromone signals are constantly changing. 48. The word "They" in line 24 refers to (A) pheromones (B) roles (C) activities (D) insects 49. The word "sedentary" in line 29 is closest in meaning to (A) inactive (B) inefficient (C) unchangeable (D) unbalanced 50. Pheromone systems are relatively complex in insects that 第 19 页 共 20 页 (A) also communicate using sight and sound (B) live underground (C) prey on other insects (D) live in organized groups 第 20 页 共 20 页...
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This document was uploaded on 03/17/2014.

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