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Unformatted text preview: e comprehensive nature of the plan
(C) To demonstrate an omission in the plan
(D) To describe Seattle's landscape prior to implementation of the plan
6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about how citizens of
Seattle received the Olmsted Report?
(A) They were hostile to the report's conclusions.
(B) They ignored the Olmsteds' findings.
(C) They supported the Olmsteds' plans.
(D) They favored the city council's seeking advice from another firm.
7. According to the passage, when was the Olmsted Report officially accepted as the
master plan for the Seattle public park system?
8. The word "sums" in line 20 is closest in meaning to
9. According to the passage, which of the following was most directly influenced by the
Alaska-Yukon- Pacific Exposition?
(A) The University of Washington
(B) Brookline, Massachusetts
(C) The mayor of Seattle
(D) The Seattle Parks Board 第 11 页 共 20 页 Questions 10-19 Line
(5) (10) (15) (20) No two comets ever look identical, but they have basic features in common, one of the
most obvious of which is a coma. A coma looks like a misty, patch of light with one or more
tails often streaming from it in the direction away from the Sun.
At the heart of a comet's coma lies a nucleus of solid material, typically no more than
10 kilometers across. The visible coma is a huge cloud of gas and dust that has escaped
from the nucleus, which it then surrounds like an extended atmosphere. The coma can extend
as far as a million kilometers outward from the nucleus. Around the coma there is often an
even larger invisible envelope of hydrogen gas.
The most graphic proof that the grand spectacle of a comet develops from a relatively
small and inconspicuous chunk of ice and dust was the close-up image obtained in 1986 by
the European Giotto probe of the nucleus of Halley's Comet. It turned out to be a bit like a
very dark asteroid, measuring 16 by 8 kilometers. Ices have evaporated from its outer layers
to leave a crust of nearly black dust all over the surface. Bright jets of gas from evaporating
ice burst out on the side facing the Sun, where the surface gets heated up, carrying dust
with them. This is how the coma and the tails are created.
Comets grow tails only when they get warm enough for ice and dust to boil off. As a
comet's orbit brings it closer to the Sun, first the coma grows, then two distinct tails usually
form. One, the less common kind, contains electrically charged (i.e., ionized) atoms of gas,
which are blown off directly in the direction away from the Sun by the magnetic field of
the solar wind. The other tail is made of neutral dust particles, which get gently pushed back
by the pressure of the sunlight itself. Unlike the ion tail, which is straight, the dust tail
becomes curved as the particles follow their own orbits around the Sun. I0. The passage focuses on comets primarily in terms of their
(A) orbital patterns
(B) coma and tails
11. The word "identical" in line I is closest in meaning to
(A) equally fast
(B) exactly alike
(C) near each other
12. The word "heart" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
13. Why does the author mention the Giotto probe in paragraph 3?
(A) It had a relatively small and inconspicuous nucleus.
(B) It was very similar to an asteroid.
(C) It was covered with an unusual black dust.
第 12 页 共 20 页 (D) It provided visual evidence of the makeup of a comet's nucleus.
14. It can be inferred from the passage that the nucleus of a comet is made up of
(A) dust and gas
(B) ice and dust
(C) hydrogen gas
(D) electrically charg...
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This document was uploaded on 03/17/2014.
- Fall '14