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Cody-Lecture Notes

Cody-Lecture Notes - Prokaryote&vs&Eukaryote...

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1/29/14 1 Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Composed of algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, and plants Include bacteria and archaea
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1/29/14 2 The ProkaryoDc Cell Cell Size & Shape Bacteria Cell Structure Genome Growth GeneDc Transfer Bacteria v. Archaea Prokaryotes v. Eukaryotes ProkaryoDc Cell Size Prokaryotes ~1.0 µm in diameter EukaryoDc cells from mulDcellular organisms ~10 µm in diameter Unicellular eukaryoDc organisms ~100 µm Prokaryotes Eukaryotes ProkaryoDc Cell Shape Cocci (spherical) and bacilli (rod) most common Spirochete (Spiral) and Vibrio (Comma) Cocci Bacilli Spirochete Vibrio
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1/29/14 3 ProkaryoDc Cell Shape Cocci (spherical) and bacilli (rod) most common Spirochete (Spiral) and Vibrio (Comma) Cocci Bacilli Spirochete Vibrio Bacteria Cell Structure Cell Size & Shape Bacteria Cell Structure External Structures Cell Envelope Cytoplasm Genome Growth GeneDc Transfer Bacteria v. Archaea Prokaryotes v. Eukaryotes Bacteria Cell Structure External structures Flagella Fimbriae, Pili Cell envelope Cell membrane Cell wall Cytoplasm No membrane bound organelles Endospores Nucleoid Ribosomes
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1/29/14 4 External Structures of Bacterial Cells Flagella Are responsible for movement Have long structures that extend beyond cell surface Are not present on all bacteria Textbookofmicrobiology.net Listeria Flagella Structure Filament Extends from cell surface to the Dp Hollow, rigid cylinder Composed of the protein flagellin Some bacteria have a sheath around filament Hook Links filament to basal body Basal body Anchors filament and hook to cell wall by a rod and a series of either two or four rings of integral proteins RotaDon, not undulaDon Pearson EducaDon
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1/29/14 5 MoDlity RotaDon propels bacterium through environment (Swimming) Not random Counterclockwise: Run Clockwise: Tumble Bacteria move in response to sDmuli (taxis) Towards chemical gradient Figure 3.45 Pearson EducaDon External Structures of Bacterial Cells Fimbriae SDcky, bristle like projecDons Shorter than flagella Contain adhesin Twitching moDlity Mediate a_achment to substances in environment Adherence o`en the iniDal step of persistent infecDon
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1/29/14 6 Fimbriae Mabck 2002 Pili Tubules composed of pilin Also known as conjugaDon pili Longer than fimbriae but shorter than flagella Not universal Absent in Gram posiDves Mediate the transfer of DNA from one cell to another (conjugaDon) Donor/recipient Transfers while it replicates One of a few mechanisms bacteria can exchange geneDc material Bacteria Cell Structure External structures Capsules Slime layer Flagella Fimbriae, Pili Cell envelope Cell membrane Cell wall Cytoplasm No membrane bound organelles Endospores Nucleoid Ribosomes
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1/29/14 7
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