CH 10 BIO.docx - Amanda Perkins Dr Rao CH 10 Bio Molecular...

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Amanda Perkins 11/05/2019 Dr. Rao CH. 10 Bio: Molecular Biology of the Gene Phages: small virus that infects only bacteria. Nucleotide: The basic building block of nucleic acid polymers; an organic compound made up of a nitrogenous base , a sugar , and a phosphate group. Polynucleotide: A polymer made up of many nucleotides covalently bonded together. Sugar-phosphate backbone: The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RHA nitrogenous bases are attached. Adenine (A): A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Cyosine (C): A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Thymine (T): A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA. Guanine (G): A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Uracil (U): A compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of RNA. In DNA its place is taken by thymine. Double helix: The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape. Semiconservative model: Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand. DNA polymerase: An enzyme that assembles DNA nucleotides into polynucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a template. Transcription: The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template. Translation: The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule; there is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.

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