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· ; double ; triple bond length: distance between the centers of two atoms joined
by a covalent bond l >l >l – Typeset by FoilTEX – polar covalent bond: electron pair is not shared equally between
the electrons are displaced towards the more nonmetallic element
– Typeset by FoilT X –
E δ+ δ− H Cl GChem I 9.6 – Typeset by FoilTEX – electronegativity E N : ability of an atom to attract electrons in
a compound; Pauling scale: most electronegative atom, F, has EN = 4
electronegativity is related to electron afﬁnity and ionization energy
if ∆E N = E N1 − E N2 ≈ 0, the bond is covalent
if ∆E N ≈ 0.4–2.0, the bond is polar covalent
if ∆E N 2.0, the bond is ionic Guidelines for Drawing Lewis Structures
Rules 1. Determine the skeleton structure.
(a) H is always a terminal atom and has only one bond.
(b) In simple compounds, O and X (halogens) are terminal
atoms. If X is bonded to O, O is terminal
(c) Oxygen atoms do not bond to each other excep...
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