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A technique that provides estimates of pointwise

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Unformatted text preview: r estimates in local (elemental) norms may also provide an indications as to where solution accuracy is insu cient and where re nement is needed. A posteriori error estimates can roughly be divided into four categories. 1. Residual error estimates. Local nite element problems are created on either an element or a subdomain and solved for the error estimate. The data depends on the residual of the nite element solution. 2. Flux-projection error estimates. A new ux is calculated by post processing the nite element solution. This ux is smoother than the original nite element ux and an error estimate is obtained from the di erence of the two uxes. 3. Extrapolation error estimates. Two nite element solutions having di erent orders or di erent meshes are compared and their di erences used to provide an error estimate. 4. Interpolation error estimates. Interpolation error bounds are used with estimates of the unknown constants. The four techniques are not independent but have many similarities. Surveys of error estimation procedures 7, 2...
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