INTROANSvF_Bb_Arnot

4 sympathetic nerves to other paravertebral ganglia

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Unformatted text preview: pathetic Nerves To Other Paravertebral Ganglia Post Ganglionic to Effector Spinal Column T1 - L2 To Prevertebral Ganglia To Other Paravertebral Ganglia Sympathetic Innervation of the Adrenal Medulla Neurotransmitters of Adrenal Medulla: Catecholamines • 80% epinephrine • 20% norepinephrine • Little dopamine (not significant) Germann and Stanfield Figure 12.5 IV. A&B. 2. Neurotransmitters of ANS • Preganglionic neurons – acetylcholine • Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons – acetylcholine • Sympathetic postganglionic neurons AE, NE NOTE: Somatic nervous system—acetylcholine. Acetylcholine Choline Choline + Choline transporter Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase ACh Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) m or n Ach R Fig. 11.3 Kalant et al. Catecholamine Synthesis Fig. 11.5 Kalant et al http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/aminoacidderivatives.html Noradrenalin and Adrenalin L-tyrosine L-tyrosine Tyrosine dehydroxylase L-Dopa Dopa decarboxylase DA NA Dopamine Dopamine -hydroxylase 2 AdrR NE or Epi 2 AdrR Adrenoceptor Fig. 11.5 Kalant et al Noradrenalin and Adrenalin L-tyrosine L-tyrosine Tyrosine dehydroxylase L-Dopa Dopa decarboxylase DA NA Dopamine Dopamine -hydroxylase VMAT vesicle monamine transporter 2 AdrR NE or Epi 2 AdrR NAT/NET DAT reuptake transporter Adrenoceptor Fate & Elimination of Catecholamines COMT degrade monoamine MAO metabolites monoamino oxydase COMT NA Circulating NA VMAT NAT MAO COMT Fig. 11.6 Kalant et al. IV.A&B. 3. ANS Neurotransmitter Receptors • Types of cholinergic receptors – Nicotinic cholinergic receptor (LGIC) – Muscarinic cholinergic receptor (GPCR) • Types of adrenergic receptors – Alpha adrenergic receptors (GPCR) – Beta adrenergic receptors (GPCR) Cholinergic Receptors Effector organ for parasympathetic Germann and Stanfield nAChR: Neuronal or muscular subtypes 1-9, 1-4 ( 1 and 1 only in muscle), •Distinct pharmacological & physiological characteristics depend on subunit composition •( 3)2( 4)3 in PNS Increase cation (Na+/K+) permeability channel causing excitation and depolarization Ag(PNS): DMPP Dimethylphenylpiperazinium ANT (PNS): Hexamethonium mAChR (m1-5) m1,m3,m5 m2, m4 Gq/11 Gi/o Ag: ACh, muscarine & carbachol PLC IP3, DAG, Ca++, PKC inhibit AC decrease cAMP ANT : atropine & scopolamine Signal Transduction at Alpha 1 Adrenergic Receptors Germann and Stanfield Figure 12.8a Signa...
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