Unformatted text preview: infrastructure for large-scale introduction of bio-energy. For Europe this will contribute
to the security of gas supply, which will be more and more dependent from import,
while for the Netherlands it will save the natural gas resources for a longer period.
Furthermore, “Green Gas” is easier to transport and store than electricity or heat. The
gas grid losses (<1%) are much less than those of the electricity and heat distribution
networks (4% and 15%).
Large amounts of primary fuels are consumed for distributed heat production. The
use of centralised produced SNG (economy of scale) for heat production in households
and small and medium sized enterprises is economic competitive with alternative
options like distributed CHP plants and electrical heating. The buffer function of the
gas grid makes continuous operation of “Green Gas” plants possible. This contrary to
centralised heat supply options that are dimensioned to maximum heat demand.
Moreover, SNG can also be stored in old gas fields for (seasonal) peak shaving.
Promising near future applications for “Green Gas” are co-generation at
household level (especially in fuel cells), and as alternative fuel for transportation (i.e.
CNG, LNG). Concerning the future use of alternative transportation fuels in the EU,
the European Commission has a targeted natural gas market share for road transport of
10% by 2020 (based on percentage of the total fuel consumption for transportation). A
main driving force for the large-scale introduction of CNG as motor fuel is concern for
the security of supply for the transport sector, which currently is solely dependent on
oil products. Besides, application of CNG will result in fewer emissions of NOx,
CO2, aromatics, and sulphur compounds, compared to petrol and diesel. Similar to
CNG, “Green Gas” can also be used as a motor fuel, with the advantage of being an
almost CO2-neutral fuel.
“GREEN GAS” PRODUCTION ROUTES
“Green Gas” can be produced by conversion of biomass via biological or
thermochemical processes. The biological route comprises upgrading of landfill gas, or
biogas produced from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes (such as vegeta...
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- Spring '08
- Chemical Engineering, green gas, biomass gasification, ECN Biomass, SNG production