Chap_19 - Chemistry52 Chapter19 Intheearlydayso...

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Chemistry 52 Chapter 19 1 HISTORY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY In the early days of chemistry, scientists classified chemical substances into 2 groups: 1. Inorganic : those that were composed of minerals , such as rocks and nonliving matter. 2. Organic : those that were produced by living organisms , hence the name “organic”. At the time, scientists believed that a “vital force”, only present in living organisms, was necessary to produce organic compounds. In 1828, German chemist Friedrick Wöhler disproved this theory by producing urea, an organic compound found in urine, from inorganic compounds. °°fi 4 2 NH NCO H N O C P 2 NH Ammonium Urea cyanat (or e ganic) (inorganic) Now organic chemistry is defined as the study of compounds containing carbon atom . There are currently about 10 million organic compounds known to man. Aspirin Sulfa drug Some examples of organic molecules
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Chemistry 52 Chapter 19 2 PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Organic compounds differ from inorganic compounds in many ways. The table below summarizes these differences. A Comparison of Properties of Organic and Inorganic Compounds Property Organic Compounds Inorganic Compounds Bonding within molecule Usually covalent Mostly ionic Forces between molecules Generally weak Very strong Physical states Gas, liquids, or low melting solids High melting solids Flammability Often flammable Nonflammable Solubility in water Often low Often high Conductivity of aqueous solutions Nonconductor Conductor Rate of chemical reactions Usually slow Usually fast Examples: 1. Identify each compound below as organic or inorganic: A) CaCl 2 B) C 4 H 10 C) C 2 H 5 Cl D) Na 2 CO 3 2. Match the following properties with the compounds ethane, C 2 H 6 or sodium bromide, NaBr. a) boils at –89 ° C b) burns vigorously c) dissolves in water d) solid at 250 ° C
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Chemistry 52 Chapter 19 3 STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS An expanded structural formula shows all the atoms present in a molecule and the bonds that connect them together. For example: H H oe H ± C ± C ± O ± H (Ethanol) H H A condensed structural formula shows the arrangement of the atoms, but shows each carbon atom and its attached hydrogen atoms as a group. For example: CH 3 ± CH 2 ± OH
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