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Chap_02 - PhysicalScience1 Chapter2 MOTION Motion reference...

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Physical Science 1 Chapter 2 1 MOTION Motion is described as change in position of an object relative to a frame of reference . Frame of reference is a coordinate system that is assumed to be stationary . Kinematics is the scientific description of motion without regard to its cause . Motion can be: Uniform: Car cruising down a highway. Non­uniform: Skier sliding down the slope. Linear: Sprinter running along a straight line. Non­linear: Golf ball flying in a trajectory.
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Physical Science 1 Chapter 2 2 VECTORS Two types of quantities exist in science: Scalar : those expressed only with a magnitude . Examples: mass, time, length, speed. Vector : those expressed with a magnitude and direction . Examples: velocity, acceleration, force. Vectors are represented by arrows , where the length represents the magnitude , and the arrowhead represents the direction of the vector. 4 mi 3 mi E 1 mi Nort a t h West s °° °°°°° °°fi
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Physical Science 1 Chapter 2 3 ADDITION OF VECTORS When two vectors are parallel and in the same direction , their resultant is their sum . Example: A motor boat travels 10 km/h relative to the water. If the water flow is 5.0 km/h, what is the boat’s speed relative to the shore, if the boat is heading directly downstream? 10 km/h 5 km/h + = °°°° °°°fi °°fi When two vectors are parallel and opposite in direction , their resultant is their difference . Example: In the above problem, what is the boat’s speed if it is heading upstream? 10 km/h 5 5 km/h km/h + = °°°°°fi ‹°°° °°°fi 15 km/h
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Physical Science 1 Chapter 2 4 HISTORY OF MOTION Study of motion goes back to the time of Aristotle (384­322 B.C.). In his view, two classes of motion existed: natural and violent. In natural motion, every object had a proper place, determined by its “nature”. An object that was not in its proper place would “strive” to get there. Based on this view, Aristotle reasoned that an unsupported lump of clay, being of earth, would properly fall to the ground; and a puff of smoke, being of the air, properly rose to the sky.
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