100%(2)2 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 10 pages.
Manifest Destiny:The term originates from the early 1800s. In the 19th century, Manifest Destiny was the common belief that United States settlers were destined to expand across the continent. It is a rhetorical term that many groups used to justify their actions, like War with Mexico and relationships with Indians and Britain in the Northwest. The painting American Progress by John Gast is emblematic of Manifest Destiny – the depiction of miners, farmers, and trains below a goddess-like figure shows the glory of expansion in the west. There are 3 major virtues to Manifest Destiny: 1) the virtue of the American people and their institutions, 2) the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the United States, 3) the destiny under God to do this work.Frederick Jackson Turner:An historian of the American West. In his most influential writing in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Turner argued that the frontier was the key to American history. Rejecting the then-dominant theory that saw American society as developing from European “seeds,” Turner believed the frontier forced men to abandon useless European customs and engendered distinctively American traits such as individualism, and democracy. Turner saw western history as a process, not a place -- a process that had ended with the closing of the frontier in the 1890s.Despite criticism, the frontier thesis remained the dominant interpretation in Western history for decades.The Columbian Exchange:The Columbian Exchange refers to the exchange of goods, culture, disease, between Europe and the “new world” after Christopher Columbus’s voyage in 1492. Overall the exchanges supported an increase in crop production and an increase in their variety. Explorers brought maize, potatoes, and tomatoes, among other things, back to Europe, while the Europeans brought horses, domesticated animals, and sugar cane. Although many of the introductions were intentional, disease was not. The Europeans gave the Americas smallpox, chicken pox, cholera, the common cold, while the Americans gave the Europeans syphilis and pinta (skin disease). Additionally, the Europeans brought brown rats, earthworms, and zebra mussels.Pueblo Revolt of 1680:Back in the 1590s, Juan de Onate brought the Franciscan Catholics to New Mexico. When the Spanish arrived there were 40,000 Pueblos, but by 1680 there were only 15,000. The Spanish were strict and religious and tried to appeal to the Pueblo children for support. The Revolt took 5 years to organize. On August 10, 1680, the Pueblo Indians revolted against the Spanish Rule in Santa Fe, New Mexico (also known as the Pope’s rebellion). The Indians were successful, killing 400 Spanish and driving out 2000 other Spanish Settlers. During the Revolt, the Pueblos stole Spanish horses and destroyed Spanish settlements, while killing 400 people. Most fled and the Pueblos were successful for a period of time.