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Lecture2 - Review from Monday's lecture Key concepts Macro...

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1 Review from Monday’s lecture: Key concepts: •Macro- vs. microscopic pumps •Active vs. passive contributions •Structure/function relationships of tissues, cell types •Regulatory mechanisms First example = circulatory system •Structural organization, direction of blood flow •Roles of SA and AV nodes, Bundles of His and Purkinje fibers, nervous system control •Contractions coordinated within chamber, sequential •Differences between cardiac vs. neuronal or skeletal muscle action potentials •EKG and blood pressure measurements and events of cardiac cycle •Structure/function of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins •Arterioles control distribution to specific capillary beds Arterioles control distribution to capillary beds: precapillary sphincters alter diameter/resistance to blood flow subject to both local and systemic control Local and systemic regulation of blood pressure •Local: [metabolite] and [waste] affect flow to specific tissues •Systemic: responses to changes in central blood pressure and composition mediated by hormonal signals
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2 Responses to changes in central blood pressure and composition mediated by nervous system and hormonal signals: •Sympathetic nerves --> release (nor)epinephrine (a.k.a. (nor)adrenaline ) ->smooth muscles contract, constrict vessels, decrease blood flow (Exception=skeletal muscle) •Parasympathetic nerves Æ release acetylcholine Æ relax smooth muscle, increase flow, decrease BP Systemic control of blood pressure: What controls direction and identity of material movement between blood and interstitial fluid? •direction of fluid movement controlled by balance between blood pressure and osmotic pressure •”extra” fluid returned to blood by lymphatic system •identity of molecules moving depends on concentration gradients, permeability of capillary walls in specific tissue, availability of pores, endocytosis in some tissues Tissue-specific differences in selectivity
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