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Lecture4 - Summary of specialized zones of the renal...

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1 Summary of specialized zones of the renal tubules -proximal convoluted tubule: major site of salt, nutrient and water reabsorption, pH regulation, secretion of wastes -loop of Henle: creates external concentration gradient in medulla by countercurrent exchange -distal convoluted tubule: NaCl and water reabsorption, pH regulation -collecting duct: concentrates urine as water lost by osmosis, degree of concentration depends on magnitude of gradient Summary of kidney regulation •Driving force for bulk material flow = blood pressure (regulated locally and systemically) •Major regulation of filtration by maintaining local (glomerular) and systemic blood pressure •Systemic responses regulate blood pressure via effects on arterial constriction and blood volume •Blood volume adjusted by effects on reabsorption of solutes and water, and thirst •Water follows solutes osmotically; regulation of solute movement is key determinant of water balance •Local flow of specific molecules (ions, glucose, water, etc.) determined by different permeabilities and concentration gradients within tissue, specific secretion of some •Countercurrent exchange creates steep osmotic gradient in tissue surrounding tubules -> extreme concentration of filtrate driven osmotically Introduction to plants -Overview of plant biology -unity of biology: genomics approaches -Overview of plant architecture -cellular differences from animals - cell wall: structure and implications -overview of anatomy -tissue types, organization Why study plants? •Practical applications •Intellectual curiosity Plants provide us with •Food •Fiber •Fuel •Pharmaceuticals •Fragrances •Flowers •Oxygen •CO 2 sink
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2 Stable food supply provided by agriculture sustains enormous population growth Cotton textile mills have been the leading edge of the industrial revolution in many countries Winners of “The race to the bottom” for cheapest labor/product: 18 th century England 19 th century New England Early 20 th century SE U.S. 1930s Japan 1970s Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan 1980s China The workforce: “Sisters in Time: from the farm to the sweatshop and beyond” Most people, given the option, would rather do anything than traditional farming. Goal of modern agriculture: maximize production under sustainable conditions Plant biology through the centuries: Phase 1 (pre-civilization -> 1600s): descriptive Phase 2 (1700s to early 1990s): experimental Phase 3 (late '90s - present): genomics revolution is providing avalanche of information, shift toward analysis of interacting systems rather than isolated processes Phase 1
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Lecture4 - Summary of specialized zones of the renal...

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