Lecture10

Lecture10 - Review: Common misconception about plants:...

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1 Review: •Common misconception about plants: don’t move -> not much signaling required •Reality: highly responsive to local environment, development continuous -> LOTS of integrated signaling required •Phytohormones = chemicals made by plant to regulate their own growth •Many signaling mechanisms conserved across kingdoms •Hormone structure may not be good predictor of signaling mechanism •Double fertilization results in seed composed of 3 distinct genotypes, surrounded by additional maternal tissue -> fruit Germination requires reserve mobilization to support growth until seedlings photosynthetically active -both germination and reserve mobilization promoted by GAs In cereals, starch is metabolized to sugar by amylase (Fermentation of sugar paste -> beer) GAs discovered in early 1900s based on “foolish seedling” disease of rice infected with Gibberella fujikoroi -identified active compound by bioassay of fractionated medium -many more GAs have been identified to date GA-deficient or non-responsive mutants are dwarves
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2 Impact of Agricultural Advances on Third World “Green Revolution” due to new varieties of wheat that result in 8x increase in productivity (developed by Norman Borlaug, 1970 Nobel Peace Prize recipient) Introduction of these varieties to India prevented likely famines, permitted India to become wheat exporter, led to industrialization and general increase in standard of living Contributions of Green Revolution are controversial: •Increased productivity depends on high inputs of chemicals and irrigation •Intensive farming leads to soil depletion, erosion, salinization,…
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Lecture10 - Review: Common misconception about plants:...

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