Circulation diverse body cells metabolic coping

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Unformatted text preview: hormone product, in addi=on to its primary role(s), also directly inhibits the release of pituitary and/or hypothalamic hormones –  Altera=ons to circula=ng hormone levels are achieved by increasing or decreasing sensi4vity to nega=ve feedback Neural input Hormonal input Hypothalamic neurosecretory neuron Stress Hypothalamus (secretes) Hormone 1 (Hypophyseal portal system) Anterior pituitary Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) (Hypophyseal portal system) Anterior pituitary Negative feedback (secretes) Hormone 2 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) (Systemic circulation) (Systemic circulation) Target endocrine gland Adrenal cortex (secretes) Hormone 3 (Systemicirculation) Target cells Physiologic effect Cortisol (Systemic circulation) Diverse body cells Metabolic coping strategies Fig. 18-6, p. 670 What is growth, physiologically? Fig. 18- 8, p. 672 Endocrine Control of Growth •  AXer birth, growth hormone plays a major role in regula=ng growth. –  Other hormones, gene=cs, diet, immunity, and stress also play a role. •  GH is the most abundant pituitary hormone –  Even in people who are not growing! •  GH exerts its effects directly and indirectly –  Direct effects on metabolism in diverse =ssues –  Indirect effects via tropic ac=on, causing release of insulin- like growth factors (IGFs) GH Ac=ons •  The GH–IGF- I pathway acts on soX =ssues and bone to bring about growth. –  S=mulates protein synthesis, cell division, and the lengthening and thickening of bones. •  Direct metabolic effects occur with or without growth. –  directly increases faIy acid and blood glucose levels, releasing fuels from storage. –  Glucose sparing effect – reducing glucose uptake in =ssues that can use other fuels - - saves glucose for brain, blood. GH Secre=on Review •  Where is GH released...
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