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These are antimicrobial and degradative enzymes

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Unformatted text preview: to take up microbes by phagocytosis. Immune system has the highest density of pattern recognition receptors. Mannose and Dectin- 1 are sugar receptors. Other receptors recognize lipids and other hydrophobic molecules. These structures are looking to engage complementary structures on the pathogen. The engagement of these receptors begins signal transduction that ultimately results in the release of cytokines, chemokines, etc. Dectin- 1 is largely targeted to fungi. Triggers the uptake by either sinking into cell or cytoskeleton engulfing. Phagosome is the same as an endosome, but contains a pathogen. In the traffic from membrane into cytosol, there are several maturation step. Becomes increasingly acidic, mature pH at about 5. When the phagosome is mature, it is intercepted by similar vacuoles called lysosomes from the Golgi. They contain O2 dependent and independent factors that need pH to be low. These are antimicrobial and degradative enzymes. Killing and digestion of the organism and the generation of small peptides from it.This is the origin of the peptides that are ultimately going to be displayed on the surface of the antigen- presenting cell. Clonal selection This figure could be a T or B lymphocyte, same process. T is thymus derived, B is bone marrow. This is a fundamental law of immunology, but isn’t as robust as we thought. The clonal selection hypothesis, from Sir Burnett. There is a progenitor cell (common lymphoid progenitor), it will divide and give rise to a population of lymphocytes. Each lymphocy...
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